The SSTA maintains that teachers "meet indiscipline daily and have to contend with it increasingly and very often with an increasing feeling of isolation".
The PAT argues that "research, while valuable" is time-consuming, "whereas action is required now". "Verbal and other abuse hurled at teachers leads to total frustration and more worryingly to high levels of stress", the association adds.
The SSTA warns of "deliberately disruptive behaviour" by a small number of pupils and "low-level persistently time-wasting behaviour" that "makes successful education for the others quite impossible". Members report that they are increasingly expected to deal with difficult pupils without adequate support from the school and outside agencies. The teacher is often made to feel at fault.
Short-term exclusions are not the answer, the association says, if pupils are returned to the class without intervening action.
The PAT believes lack of resources and poor support from school management and local authorities are partly to blame.