The lecturers' main grievance is the 1989 reform of grades and pay scales. Outside the ministry in Lisbon, pupils demanded to see the minister, Manuela Ferreria Leite.
Secondary pupils taking university entrance exams have revolted against the disruptive effects of a strike by their invigilators. Thousands of candidates' exams have been suspended while state lecturers and researchers fight for a 26 per cent pay rise from the education ministry.
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