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Geography

Time is an important dimension in geography, as well as history! "Changes in the environment" is an important strand of the programme of study from KS1 onwards (PoS 5a) and this can be well illustrated through the changing seasons. The nature and number of seasons in different parts of the world can be explored through place study at KS2 (PoS 3a "what places are like") and thematic study at KS3 (PoS 6 d iii "how and why various aspects of weather and climate vary from place to place").

Latitude and longitude are first mentioned as part of the KS 2 PoS, with the Prime Meridian being given as an example of a significant feature for pupils to know. At KS3 the International Dateline is specified. An interesting way to explore the concept of time zones is by setting up a "web enquiry" with pupils accessing web cams in different places around the world - some will show night, some will show day and they may give the local time, all of which can be plotted on a world map and discussed (PoS 1 and 2).

Time zones are usually marked onto inflatable globes, which are widely available from educational suppliers: a game of "catch the globe, if it's 10.00am in (call out a place), what time is it in (call out another place)?" is a fun and active way for Key Stage 3 pupils to learn about the relationship between longitude and time. Older pupils could compare the effect of different map projections on the pattern of lines of latitude and longitude (PoS 2c).

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