I seem to remember that when O levels were invented they were not intended for those students who were going on to A levels; they were for those who were leaving school at 16. Then along came CSEs for those who were not deemed capable of doing O levels. But soon, if one achieved a certain grade then it was to be equivalent to an O level.
I could be forgetful, but during the lead up to the introduction of GCSEs, there was a great deal of debate concerning the fact that if a pupil achieved a certain level in their work, that pupil would receive an appropriate grade. This meant that everyone could technically gain an A grade. That sounded fair enough.
Yet this was never allowed to happen because the cohort's results needed to be put into a "bell chart" or curve of normal distribution. Their achievements were manipulated. A grade in one year couldn't be the worth of that grade in another year, because of the socialpolitical manipulation.
Young people and employers are still being misinformed and mislead.
R. Vaughton, France.