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With reference to the recent racial violence in some northern cities, its origins, purposes and treatment, I offer this comment from William Godwin (1756-1836), one of Britain's most incisive philosophers.

"What... can be more shameless than for society to make an example of those whom she has goaded to breach of order, instead of amending her own institutions which, by straining order into tyranny, produced the mischief?" (An Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Political Justice, 1793) David J Kyte Flat 27, 1 Park Hill Moseley, Birmingham

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