More than one in 10 state-school pupils receives private tuition, a government survey has revealed.
Private tuition is most common at primary school: one in five pupils in Years 5 and 6 is likely to have a tutor to help with school subjects.
Researchers interviewed 1,500 parents and carers, all with children aged five to 16 and attending a state school. They found that parents earning more than Pounds 50,000 a year were more likely to employ private tutors for their children than those from low-income backgrounds.
The exception was English and literacy: relatively few pupils from any social class received tuition in these subjects.
Ian McNeilly of the National Association for the Teaching of English said: "Because of league tables, schools might offer their own English lessons outside the normal timetable."
Tutors stay afloat, pages 30-31.