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Teacher notes

The project is intended for mental maths at key stage 2, in which case it can be used "big book" style with a group. Teachers will obviously find other ways of using it. There are two levels of questions - the "instant"problems in the speech bubbles, and the rather harder ones in pupil activities.

Waiting for the bus All the information necessary is in the Facts About Fares sections. The speech bubbles ask simple questions about change. As an extension, ask similar questions with other coins. For example: suppose Daljit had a 50 pence and a 20 pence?

Again, in pupil activities there are possibilities for extension. Suppose the people in the queue bought single tickets? Or some bought returns and some bought singles?

Discuss why a return fare is cheaper than two separate singles - usually for the commercial reason that it encourages people to make two journeys.

On the bus Daljit's aunt's speech bubble is straightforward multiplication. Daljit and Sean introduce the question of good value - quite objectively because it is easy to say why a five-day pass would be better value. No subjective judgment is involved. The pupil activity questions extend the possibilities opened by use of the pass. Another extension is to introduce different passes - all-day, seven-day and so on.

Coming home The speech bubbles focus on addition, and Daljit's aunt also has a calculation to find the amount of change. The other speech bubbles are straighforward addition of small amounts of money. These, too, can be extended by asking, say, that if Daljit pays with a pound;2 coin, how much change does she have?

* The Where Does Your Bus Fare Go? sections are self-explanatory, and are intended just to introduce the idea that the bus service actually costs a lot of money o run.

Discuss other costs with the children - mechanical servicing, administrative support, driver training, garaging, road tax. You could introduce the idea of depreciation - a bus is written off after five years. Does this mean that it is scrapped? It does not - it may be sold on to an operator who is happy to run an older vehicle (it may end up on the school run, of course).

Here are the answers Waiting for the bus Speech bubble questions.

Daljit will have 35p change.

Sean will have pound;1.35 change.

Daljit's aunt will have 20p change.

Pupil activities Daljit, his aunt and Sean will pay a total of pound;2.60.

Daljit's aunt will have pound;2.40 change from a pound;5 note.

Daljit saves 15p by buying a return. Daljit's aunt saves 30p by buying a return.

There are five children and three adults in the queue. If they all buy returns the total will be pound;7.15 On the bus Speech bubble questions.

Daljit: It's better value because a pass is cheaper if you do enough journeys.

Daljit's aunt: Five return tickets cost six pounds fifty. A pass costs pound;6 - so it's 50p cheaper to get the pass.

Sean: It wouldn't be good value because Sean doesn't make enough journeys to save money with a pass.

Pupil activities Over 20 journeys, Daljit's aunt saves pound;2. Over 19 journey she still saves 70p. Over 18 journeys, she loses 60p.

Coming home Daljit's aunt gets pound;4.65 from a pound;10 note. Her snack cost pound;1.10. Daljit's snack was pound;1.75; Sean's was pound;2.50.

Pupil Activities These are intended for discussion.

Answers to "where does the bus fare go?" * Mr Johal earns pound;260 for a five-day week of eight-hour shifts.

* The fuel costs pound;2.20 for a16- kilometre trip to town.

* The company will spend pound;600,000 on buses this year.

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