Examples: Algeria and Southern Rhodesia
* A significant number of European settlers took up permanent residence and developed their own government, independent of, and sometimes in defiance of, the colonising country. These colonies also formed their own cultural and political identity and the European settlers politically outnumbered the indigenous populations. However, the indigenous population not only survived, but increased and were the backbone of the economy. Eventually, they could contest white control - both the original colonisers and the independent settlers.