On this day 15 December
The Leaning Tower of Pisa reopened for the first time in nearly 12 years on 15 December 2001. Here, we look at other architectural disasters.
1. The Leaning Tower
One of Italy's most popular tourist attractions, the 57m-tall tower was closed in 1990 because it was in danger of falling over. The bell tower of the Pisa Cathedral was begun in 1173, taking 177 years to complete, and began tilting from the start because of its sandy foundations. It still leans now, but the tilt has been corrected by 45cm. Conduct a leaning tower experiment with a resource from kes1985.
2. The Wobbly Bridge
London's Millennium Bridge reopened in February 2002 after a #163;5 million repair programme to correct the wobble that saw it close just three days after opening in June 2000. Engineers tried to blame the number of people on the bridge, but they finally installed 37 viscous dampers (like shock absorbers) and stabilisers to fix the problem. Enjoy a resource from nw5298 on good, bad and ugly design.
3. A City without Water
The spectacular Fatehpur Sikri, in Uttar Pradesh, India, was built as the first planned city of the Mughals by Emperor Akbar in 1570. It took 15 years to build but was abandoned after only 14 years because of a shortage of water. Now a perfect red-hued ghost city, it was declared a Unesco World Heritage site in 1986. A resource from Schumacher looks at the impact products can have on people and the environment.
4. Galloping Gertie
The original Tacoma Narrows Bridge, in the US state of Washington and the third longest suspension bridge in the world, collapsed in November 1940 - just four months after it was opened. Known for its pitching deck, it crumpled into Puget Sound during 42mph winds. The bridge's collapse had lasting effects on science and engineering. Watch footage on YouTube - including a man risking his life for a dog in a car.
5. The unlucky Architect
Soon after the 2004 opening of Terminal 2E in Paris's Charles de Gaulle airport, its ceiling collapsed, killing four people. The architect, Paul Andreu, also designed Terminal 3 at Dubai International, which collapsed while under construction in the same year. Learn how to evaluate buildings with QCDA_Resources.
All links and resources can be found at www.tes.co.ukresources013.