Eight ways to change the world for good

4th March 2005 at 00:00
1 Reduce extreme poverty and hunger by half

2 Achieve universal primary education

3 Promote equal girls' enrolment in school and equal literacy for women

4 Cut the mortality of under-5s by two-thirds

5 Cut maternal mortality by three-quarters

6 Halt and reverse the spread of HIVAids, tuberculosis and malaria

7 Ensure environmental sustainability

8 Develop a global partnership for development

Since 2000, the UN has led efforts to galvanise rich and poor countries to work together to eradicate poverty and save the world from environmental disaster. They have set eight millennium development goals for achieving this and a deadline of 2015. Progress towards the goals will be reviewed later this year

TANZANIA

Life expectancy

43.5 yrs

Infant mortality

104 per 1,000 live births

Maternal mortality

1,500 per 100,000 live births

Adult literacy

77 per cent

Net primary school enrolment

54 per cent

HIVAids prevalence among 15-49 year-olds

12 per cent

Population without access to clean water

32 per cent

Population living on below $1 a day

20 per cent

Population undernourished

43 per cent

GOAL 1 Poverty. Heavily reliant on foreign aid, Tanzania remains one of the poorest countries, with more than a third of its people living below the national poverty line, and it is getting poorer. Even literacy rates are declining. Tanzania is heavily in debt and pays more to its creditors than it spends on health and education. The proposed debt relief will make a huge difference.

INDIA

Life expectancy

64 yrs

Infant mortality

67 per 1,000 live births

Maternal mortality

540 per 100,000 live births

Adult literacy

61 per cent

Net primary school enrolment

83 per cent

HIVAids prevalence among 15-49 year-olds

1.3 per cent

Population without access to clean water

16 per cent

Population living on below $1 a day

34 per cent

Population undernourished

21 per cent

GOAL 2 Universal primary education. The number of out-of-school children age 6-14 declined from 39 million in 1999 to 25 million in 2003.

In 2002, the country's constitution was amended to make elementary education a fundamental right of every child. Even so, India still has a quarter of the world's 104 million out-of-school children. Drop-out rates are still high, especially among girls. Some 18 per cent drop out before the age of 14, but India is aimimg to have 95 per cent of its children in school by the end of 2005.

ETHIOPIA

Life expectancy

45 yrs

Infant mortality

114 per 1,000 live births

Maternal mortality

850 per 100,000 live births

Adult literacy

41.5 per cent

Net primary school enrolment

46 per cent

HIVAids prevalence among 15-49 year-olds

6.7 per cent

Population without access to clean water

76 per cent

Population living on below $1 a day

26 per cent

Population undernourished

42 per cent

GOAL 3 Girls' education. Despite extremely limited resources, the number of girls enrolled in primary schools has risen from 30 per cent in 1990 to 40 per cent now, and more girls are completing secondary education.

Girls' education is interrupted in many cases so that they can either take care of younger siblings or work to boost the family income. Also, many girls get married at a young age, and so leave school to look after their own children.

AFGHANISTAN

Life expectancy

43 yrs

Infant mortality

165 per 1,000 live births

Maternal Mortality

1,900 per 100,000 live births

Adult literacy

36 per cent

Net primary school enrolment

27 per cent (1991 figure)

HIVAids prevalence among 15-49 year-olds NA

Population without access to clean water

87 per cent

Population living on below $1 a day

NA

Population undernourished

70 per cent

GOAL 4 Child mortality.

A quarter of all Afghan children die before the age of five due to poor conditions, infection, war, lack of medical care and malnutrition. A vaccination campaign is underway to try to reduce childhood infections, but it is an uphill struggle - the country has just 20 doctors per 100,000 people and many people live far from a clinic. Maternal death is also high.

Men in rural areas often refuse to allow female relatives to visit a doctor.

SIERRA LEONE

Life expectancy

34 yrs

Infant mortality

165 per 1,000 live births

Maternal mortality

2,000 per 100,000 live births

Adult literacy

36 per cent

Net primary school enrolment

41 per cent (1991 figure)

HIVAids prevalence among 15-49 year-olds NA

Population without access to clean water

43 per cent

Population living on below $1 a day

57 per cent

Population undernourished

50 per cent

GOAL 5 Maternal mortality. Sierra Leone is the worst place to be pregnant. The maternal death rate - at 2 per cent of births - is higher than that of any other country and is a leading cause of death among young women. There is very limited access to proper ante-natal or obstetric care, and women often have children in their teens. Many women in rural areas give birth at home without the services of a midwife. The rebellion, the displacement of people and the destruction of hospitals have seriously aggravated the situation.

BOTSWANA

Life expectancy

41.4 yrs

Infant mortality

80 per 1,000 live births

Maternal mortality

100 per 100,000 live births

Adult literacy

79 per cent

Net primary school enrolment

81 per cent

HIVAids prevalence among 15-49 year-olds

39 per cent

Population without access to clean water

5 per cent

Population living on below $1 a day

23.5 per cent

Population undernourished

24 per cent

GOAL 6 HIVAids. The world's worst-hit country. Within the next five years around a third of 15 to 49-year-olds will die of HIVAids, which has dramatically reduced life expectancy to 41. Without the virus, life expectancy would be around 70. The drugs needed to treat Aids are expensive - Pounds 4,000per patient per year - and would require a health budget of pound;1.5bn, which the country cannot afford.

UNITED STATES

Life expectancy

77 yrs

Infant mortality

7 per 1,000 live births

Maternal mortality

17 per 100,000 live births

Adult literacy

99 per cent

Net primary school enrolment

93 per cent

HIVAids prevalence among 15-49 year-olds 0.6 per cent

Population without access to clean water

0 per cent

Population living on below $1 a day

0 per cent

Population undernourished

0 per cent

GOAL 7 Environmental sustainability. The world's biggest economy is also the world's biggest polluter. The United States emits more pollution overall and per head than any other country. The country also produces 36 per cent of the world's greenhouse emissions. In Kyoto in 1997, the US agreed to reduce its emissions by 6 per cent but then pulled out of the agreement. Emissions have risen by more than15 per cent since 1990.

UNITED KINGDOM

Life expectancy

78 yrs

Infant mortality

114 per 1,000 live births

Maternal mortality

13 per 100,000 live births

Adult literacy

99 per cent

Net primary school enrolment

100 per cent

HIVAids prevalence among 15-49 year-olds

0.1 per cent

Population without access to clean water

0 per cent

Population living on below $1 a day

0 per cent

Population undernourished

0 per cent

GOAL 8 Partnerships for development. The UK is taking the lead in the G8 group of wealthy nations with a pound;5.38bn proposal to fund the cancelling of multilateral debts owed by the most indebted poor countries, and a call to provide an additional pound;26.7bn in aid for the next decade. The UK has announced its own extra aid for immunisation and education.

Source: UNDP (Human Development Reports, 2004. hdr.undp.org)

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