for classroom discussion of FGM, intended for use during sex and relationships education. She argued that lessons like this could be delivered by teachers after just one training session. "FGM should be included within safeguarding and child protection training so that teachers know what the signs are," she said. "But the reality is that they won't all have training."
During the lesson, pupils are asked to consider how they would respond if a friend disclosed to them that she was at risk of FGM. "The lesson helps young people come to view FGM like any other child protection issue," Ms Killough said. "They know that they would need to tell an adult. They know that there are places for them to go for support."
Ms Killough would like to see lessons like this delivered in all schools, regardless of whether pupils are considered to be at risk. "People tend to have very stereotyped ideas about who's at risk and who isn't," she said. "You don't know whether there might be a child at risk in your class.
"But also, learning about it can be applied to many other things: telling an adult in school, how to support a friend who might be at risk of something. All that can apply across the board."
`We're not going to tolerate it'
Yvonne Powell, principal of Walworth Academy in South London, is unsure how many of her pupils are at risk of female genital mutilation. She knows, however, that a large number of them come from communities where FGM is practised.
"It's always been an issue where I've been challenged," she says. "What signs are we looking for? That's the hardest thing about this. Before we start looking for signs, we need to get the discussion out in the open."
Ms Powell has used school assemblies to highlight myths surrounding the procedure, such as the idea that it renders a girl pure or worthy. "It's about starting with the premise that, first and foremost, it's illegal in this country," she says. "It's not a religious act - it's a subcultural act. That's a good place to start talking about it."
The school runs regular PSHE sessions on FGM. In one, pupils were asked to write statements about the procedure on Post-it notes. This resulted in a range of anonymous comments, from "It's barbaric" and "There's no difference between FGM and rape" to "My sister had it done - I hope it's not going to happen to me". The sessions provided pupils with relevant information and telephone numbers so they were aware of how to seek help.
In addition, Year 10 girls are being trained to lead circle-time discussions on the subject for younger children. "Primary schools are where they really need support," Ms Powell says. "Word gets out that we're not going to tolerate FGM in this country. If any cultural group is adamant that they're going to do it, then they're going to do it even earlier, before the child has a chance to say any different.
"Children can be each other's best friends and best protectors. It's a sensitive subject, so you've got to create a very safe, open environment. FGM isn't a dirty phrase. It's a horrible thing, but it's safe to talk about it.
"FGM exists. It's here around us. Let's recognise that and talk about what it means, and then talk about spotting the signs."