Pupils who are consulted about their learning are better able to see the relevance of what they learn in school and to apply it to their own lives. They are also less reliant on their teachers for judgments about their learning. Instead, they have the confidence to identify when they have internalised new knowledge and are able to apply it. Researchers from Waikato University in New Zealand interviewed 1,200 primary and secondary pupils. They found that those who had participated in discussions about learning were more articulate and eager to discuss their education. They were also better able to identify learning goals.