Schools are struggling to cope with the recent influx of migrant pupils and need more help, according to unpublished findings by the schools inspectorate.
TES Scotland has revealed that arrivals in some authorities have more than doubled in two years.
While there are success stories, the bigger picture is of many schools battling against the odds with inadequate support.
The findings, based on various sources of information, appeared in a presentation by Norma Wright, the inspectorate's first national specialist for race equality, to the Catholic Headteachers' Association of Scotland conference in Crieff. Her report will be published in September.
HMIE asked local authorities how many migrant pupils started school between 2005 and 2008. In nine authorities, the total rose by 61 per cent. Numbers more than doubled in Aberdeen, Fife, Perth and Kinross and East Ayrshire.
Only five authorities had detailed, formal approaches; five had no arrangements. One did "superb" work with refugees but not with children from eastern Europe, perhaps because of their unpredictable numbers. HH.