Turkish teens know little about Europe
They know little about Europe's premier political organisation and most can locate only one or two countries on a map of Europe, the ECER conference was told.
Fifteen-year-old pupils at two London comprehensives were questioned about Europe by Daniel Faas of Cambridge university, who has been comparing the perspectives of Turkish teenagers in England and Germany.
The German teenagers, who attended two schools in Stuttgart, were far more aware of the EU and almost three-quarters of them could identify six or seven European countries.
Turkish pupils at the more middle-class of the two German schools tended to have positive views on Europe. But those at the second school faced more racism - even from their teachers - and generally saw themselves as Turkish rather than German or European.
Some, however, regarded Turkey as a backward country and did not want it to join the EU.
The London schools had a stronger multicultural agenda but taught children very little about Europe, even though the Government has asked schools to "promote a sense of European identity".
Daniel Faas acknowledged that this was a problem but added that as Turkish pupils at the more racially-divided of the two London schools were also subjected to "large-scale verbal and physical abuse", it was difficult for them to identify with England, let alone Europe.
This is a major challenge, not only for schools but also for politicians, he believes.
"At a time when Europe is entering accession talks with Turkey, politicians and policy-makers are presented with the challenge of constructing and promoting an inclusive, multi-religious model of Europe," he said.