Seattle has topped the list of the most literate cities in the United States, according to research by Jack Miller, president of Central Connecticut State University, who for seven years has compiled the literate cities list. It focuses on six indicators: newspaper circulation, number of bookstores, library resources, periodical publishing resources, educational attainment and internet resources. In second place was Washington and in third Minneapolis. "From this data, we can better perceive the extent and quality of the long-term literacy essential to individual economic success, civic participation, and the quality of life in a community and a nation," said Dr Miller. He added that cities ranked in the top 10 most literate also tended to offer the most active singles scenes.