Will's word

27th June 2003 at 01:00
challenge (verb) "question, refuse to accept; defy, compete to win"

These belligerent senses characterise the modern use of this word, and they have been around since early medieval times. But just as old is a second set of senses, where people challenge in order to demand something as a right - "call for, insist upon". There is no problem with the first sense, which is routine in Shakespeare whenever one person wants to fight another.

It is the second which can cause a problem. When in Henry VI Part 3 (IV.vii.23) Edward says "I challenge nothing but my dukedom", he is demanding to have it, not wanting to fight against it. And when in Richard II (II.iii.133) Bolingbroke says "I am a subject,And I challenge law" he does not mean he is going to break the law; he is simply demanding his rights.

David Crystal is author, with Ben Crystal, of Shakespeare's Words, published by Penguin

Log-in as an existing print or digital subscriber

Forgotten your subscriber ID?


To access this content and the full TES archive, subscribe now.

View subscriber offers


Get TES online and delivered to your door – for less than the price of a coffee

Save 33% off the cover price with this great subscription offer. Every copy delivered to your door by first-class post, plus full access to TES online and the TES app for just £1.90 per week.
Subscribers also enjoy a range of fantastic offers and benefits worth over £270:

  • Discounts off TES Institute courses
  • Access over 200,000 articles in the TES online archive
  • Free Tastecard membership worth £79.99
  • Discounts with Zipcar, Buyagift.com, Virgin Wines and other partners
Order your low-cost subscription today