The Society for Educational Studies said that Culture and Pedagogy: international comparisons in primary education, published by Blackwell, was an "outstanding contribution to the study of education".
Professor Alexander, one of the "three wise men" who reported on English primary education 10 years ago, received a prize of pound;2,000 for his research into schooling in England, France, Russia, India and the United States.
Earlier this year his book was declared to be the "outstanding book of the year" by the American Educational Research Association.
The SES's second prize of pound;1,000 was awarded to Dr Christine Skelton of the University of Newcastle for Schooling the Boys: Masculinities and Primary Education, Open University Press.
Two other studies were highly commended by the judges: The School Textbook: Geography, History and Social Studies by Professor Bill Marsden, Woburn Press; and Education in a Post-Welfare Society by Professor Sally Tomlinson, Open University Press.