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Fact sheet: Machiavelli

Fact sheet: Machiavelli

This resource was designed for students studying Christopher Marlowe’s play The Jew of Malta, but it could equally be of use to teachers and students of History or Politics, as well as English and Drama. It consists of a brief overview of Machiavelli’s life and work, with 3 copies per page to ease printing, photocopying and distribution.
Angelil
9-1 British Medicine: Industrial Medicine Revision Pack

9-1 British Medicine: Industrial Medicine Revision Pack

GCSE British Medicine Through Time New 2016 Specification Grades 9-1 Can be used for AQA, Edexcel, OCR or iGCSE exam boards. Revision pack that contains sheets key areas from the Industrial Period: Ideas on the cause of disease The Germ Theory (Pasteur & Koch) Care and Hospitals (Florence Nightingale) Treatment: Surgery Prevention: Jenner and Vaccinations Prevention: Public Health Depth Study: Cholera How much progress was there in the Industrial period What factors helped and hindered medical progress? (Factors) Exam Questions (Edexcel) Part of Industrial 1750-1900 (Eighteenth and Nineteenth ) period Please see my other lessons & resources Feedback welcome!
MrThorntonTeach
History of the Spanish Language

History of the Spanish Language

This is a two page worksheet that supplements a video. The video link is optional but the URL is included in the activity. In this resource, students are introduced to the origins and linguistic influences of the Spanish Language. After the video students may complete the fill in the blank activity, answer true or false questions then discuss the different influences on languages such as English and Spanish. This is a great resource to use during the first weeks of school to provide a solid understanding of the language. Purchase this great resource today!
mariammalek22
AQA 8145, The Globe Theatre, historic environment

AQA 8145, The Globe Theatre, historic environment

This is a full set of lessons which covers AQA historic environment, the Globe Theatre for 2019. There are five lessons which all include a presentation with student activities, video hyperlinks and student handouts. The final lesson is a 16 mark essay practice question with a model answer included.
catmarber
AQA 8145, The Globe historic environment, 16 mark essay practice

AQA 8145, The Globe historic environment, 16 mark essay practice

This is the sixth and final lesson on the historic environment, The Globe. It is a lesson on how to answer the 16 mark question and includes a presentation to guide students with the skills necessary for the question. There is also a planning sheet and essay plan sheet for students to complete. A mark scheme and model answer are also included.
catmarber
AQA 8145, The Globe Theatre and changes in Elizabethan society

AQA 8145, The Globe Theatre and changes in Elizabethan society

This is the fifth lesson in The Globe historic environment lesson sequence. This lesson starts by introducing the key social changes to pupils, reinforced by a video clip. Pupils then complete the card sort in pairs to match up the evidence on The Globe to the different changes. They then use the cards to populate the table showing the different changes. The plenary asks students to consider which change they think is the most significant and to justify their choice.
catmarber
AQA GCSE, A source study of the Globe Theatre

AQA GCSE, A source study of the Globe Theatre

This is the third and fourth lesson in The Globe historic environment series The lesson starts with an introduction to the Globe for pupils to read through. The video then explores the Globe with an accompanying video note sheet. Pupils then need a copy of the AQA resource source booklet on The Globe to analyse ONE source each - they will then feedback as a group. The lesson concludes with pupils listing what the Globe tells them about Elizabethan society and then a taboo plenary - the focus on society will be built on in the next lesson.
catmarber
AQA GCSE, How popular were theatres in Elizabethan England

AQA GCSE, How popular were theatres in Elizabethan England

This is the second lesson in The Globe historic environment series The lesson recaps previous knowledge of the theatre and moves on to focus on those who supported/disliked the theatre. Students use the information to create a table comparing supporters/opponents - then a group task further develops this by giving each table one group (e.g. the Gentry) to focus on. A judgement line plenary lends itself to a conclusion on how positive the theatre was for society and the government.
catmarber
Republic of Ireland context/history quiz

Republic of Ireland context/history quiz

This quiz was designed to be used in an English lesson to reinforce student knowledge of Irish history in relation to Brian Friel’s play “Translations”. However, it could of course also be used by history teachers! The quiz could be done traditionally, whereby students revise in advance and then sit the quiz on their own. However, I used it as a team game, whereby at around Easter time, the slips were cut up and hidden around the classroom treasure hunt-style. Students had to work in teams to find the slips and fill in the answers where they thought they went on the answer sheet. The first team to get a full sheet of correct answers - or the highest number of correct answers - by the end of the given time - won an Easter egg (I appreciate that edible prizes and/or the religious aspect won’t work in all schools so obviously feel free to substitute this with a reward of your choosing if needed). Ground rules worth setting include: no hoarding of slips in your team (they should be put back where you have found them so other teams can also find them…) and no using chairs/tables etc as weaponry to guard the slips you have found (yes, really!!).
Angelil
Fact sheet: IRA (Irish Republican Army)

Fact sheet: IRA (Irish Republican Army)

This is a fact sheet about the IRA designed to be distributed to students, or for teachers to use to give them some background knowledge. It has been adapted/created based on Wikipedia so naturally is basic/has limitations, but is suitable for student use and for teachers who are not history specialists. It can be useful for English teachers who are teaching plays or novels where this history is relevant, such as Brian Friel’s “Translations” or Joan Lingard’s “Across The Barricades”.
Angelil
GCSE History Edexcel Elizabethan England Lesson Facts Sheets & Revision Differentiated.

GCSE History Edexcel Elizabethan England Lesson Facts Sheets & Revision Differentiated.

Having struggled using some aspects of the new GCSE History text books, I have produced TWO SETS of 25 easy to follow fact sheets for students to use in place of the text books. **Set 1: **For higher ability students **Set 2: **For weaker students - differentiated with less writing, a bigger font and key terms included on each fact sheet. Each fact sheet links directly with the content and question types for the Edexcel exam. Personally, I give each student the sheet at the start of the lesson, rather than use the Edexcel books which are overly detailed and have caused confusion. The content in these fact sheets can replace the need for the text book altogether. They can also be used for** revision** as the information is clearly organised into features or factors. To make clear, you will purchase 2 PP with 25 slides each. One will be for higher ability students, one will be for weaker students.
RAResources
Prehistoric cures and Medicine

Prehistoric cures and Medicine

A lesson on Prehistoric cures and Medicine. Included engaging presentation, starter, assessment, task, activities and plenary
Edustem1
Financial methods of the Crown in the reign of James I

Financial methods of the Crown in the reign of James I

A resource designed in line with the specification for 1D: Stuart Britain and the Crisis of monarchy 1603-1702 that explores the weaknesses of crown finance, there is a particular emphasis on separating external and internal weaknesses in the crown finances and the work of civil servants to address them.
tfinch2
Economic pressures in the early 17th Century

Economic pressures in the early 17th Century

A resource designed in line with the specification for 1D: Stuart Britain and the Crisis of monarchy 1603-1702 that explores the economic pressures within early 17th century England. Supported by worksheets and both primary and secondary sources.
tfinch2
The Deadliest Wars in Human History - Reading Comprehension

The Deadliest Wars in Human History - Reading Comprehension

This Reading Comprehension worksheet is suitable for higher elementary to proficient ESL learners or native English speakers. The text enumerates the deadliest wars in the history of humankind. After carefully reading the text, students are required to complete some comprehension exercises including a true or false exercise, comprehension questions, a fill in the gaps exercise and a fun crossword. The text can be used for IGCSE and TOEFL vocabulary building purposes. This handout can be completed in class or assigned for homework. A full answer key included.
MariaPht
All Course Notes for Restoration England, 1660-1685 (AQA GCSE History)

All Course Notes for Restoration England, 1660-1685 (AQA GCSE History)

This 3600-word resource is a summary of the content required for Restoration England, 1660-1685. It includes 3 main sections: 1. Crown, Parliament, plots and court life The Restoration Settlement Indemnity (Declaration of Breda) The Church Clarendon Code All 7 Phases (describing the changing relations between Charles and Parliament from 1660-1685) French and Catholic influences on the court 2. Life in Restoration England The Great Fire of London Theater Science and royal patronage Coffee houses 3. Land, trade and war Mercantilism England’s oversea territories 2nd Dutch War
alfiesimpson717
All Course Notes for Britain: Power and the people: c1170 to the present day (AQA GCSE History)

All Course Notes for Britain: Power and the people: c1170 to the present day (AQA GCSE History)

This 5700-word resource is a summary of the content required for Britain: Power and the people: c1170 to the present day. It includes 4 main sections: 1. Challenging authority and feudalism Magna Carta Origins of Parliament Peasants Revolt 2. Challenging royal authority Pilgrimage of Grace English Civil War The American Revolution 3. Reform and reformers Extending the franchise Abolition of the slave trade Anti-corn law protests Social Reform (Lord Shaftesbury) Trade unionism 4. Equality and rights Women’s rights Worker’s rights Minority rights
alfiesimpson717
*Updated* AQA GCSE History: Britain: Power and the People: c1170 to the Present Day - Part Two: Challenging Royal Authority

*Updated* AQA GCSE History: Britain: Power and the People: c1170 to the Present Day - Part Two: Challenging Royal Authority

Updated *Owing to marking the Paper 2: Shaping the Nation, Section A: Thematic Studies 2018 summer examination series for AQA, all of my resources have been amended and updated for students studying the AQA GCSE History syllabus. AQA GCSE History: Britain: Power and the People: c1170 to the Present Day - Part Two: Challenging Royal Authority. • Popular uprisings against the Crown: the social, economic, religious and political causes of the Pilgrimage of Grace; the implications for royal authority; Henry VIII and his government’s reaction and the impact of the uprising. • Divine Right and parliamentary authority: the causes of the English Revolution; the New Model Army and the development of political radicalism during the Civil War era; the short and long-term impact of the English Revolution, including the significance of trial and execution of Charles I and Oliver Cromwell and the Commonwealth. • Royal authority and the right to representation: the causes of the American Revolution including the relationship between the government and people; impact and significance of the American Revolution.
liam0001
*Updated* AQA GCSE History Revision Guide - Part Two: Challenging Royal Authority

*Updated* AQA GCSE History Revision Guide - Part Two: Challenging Royal Authority

Updated *Owing to marking the Paper 2: Shaping the Nation, Section A: Thematic Studies 2018 summer examination series for AQA, all of my resources have been amended and updated for students studying the AQA GCSE History syllabus. Revision guide for the new AQA GCSE History specification Britain: Power and the People: c1170 to the Present Day. The revision guide specifically focuses on part two: Challenging Royal Authority. The topics considered are: • Popular uprisings against the Crown: the social, economic, religious and political causes of the Pilgrimage of Grace; the implications for royal authority; Henry VIII and his government’s reaction and the impact of the uprising. • Divine Right and parliamentary authority: the causes of the English Revolution; the New Model Army and the development of political radicalism during the Civil War era; the short and long-term impact of the English Revolution, including the significance of trial and execution of Charles I and Oliver Cromwell and the Commonwealth. • Royal authority and the right to representation: the causes of the American Revolution including the relationship between the government and people; impact and significance of the American Revolution.
liam0001
*Updated* Britain: Power and the People: Part Two - Challenging Royal Authority: Assessment

*Updated* Britain: Power and the People: Part Two - Challenging Royal Authority: Assessment

Updated *Owing to marking the Paper 2: Shaping the Nation, Section A: Thematic Studies 2018 summer examination series for AQA, all of my resources have been amended and updated for students studying the AQA GCSE History syllabus. AQA GCSE History: Britain: Power and the People: c1170 to the Present Day - Part Two: Challenging Royal Authority • Popular uprisings against the Crown: the social, economic, religious and political causes of the Pilgrimage of Grace; the implications for royal authority; Henry VIII and his government’s reaction and the impact of the uprising. • Divine Right and parliamentary authority: the causes of the English Revolution; the New Model Army and the development of political radicalism during the Civil War era; the short and long-term impact of the English Revolution, including the significance of trial and execution of Charles I and Oliver Cromwell and the Commonwealth. • Royal authority and the right to representation: the causes of the American Revolution including the relationship between the government and people; impact and significance of the American Revolution.
liam0001
*Updated* Oliver Cromwell and the Commonwealth

*Updated* Oliver Cromwell and the Commonwealth

Updated *Owing to marking the Paper 2: Shaping the Nation, Section A: Thematic Studies 2018 summer examination series for AQA, all of my resources have been amended and updated for students studying the AQA GCSE History syllabus. AQA GCSE History: Britain: Power and the People: c1170 to the Present Day - Part Two: Challenging Royal Authority Describe the life of Oliver Cromwell. Explain how and why Oliver Cromwell is significant in English history. Lesson Objective: to what extent has the significance of Oliver Cromwell changed throughout history?
liam0001
*Updated* The Significance of Trial and Execution of King Charles I

*Updated* The Significance of Trial and Execution of King Charles I

Updated *Owing to marking the Paper 2: Shaping the Nation, Section A: Thematic Studies 2018 summer examination series for AQA, all of my resources have been amended and updated for students studying the AQA GCSE History syllabus. AQA GCSE History: Britain: Power and the People: c1170 to the Present Day - Part Two: Challenging Royal Authority Describe the execution of King Charles I. Explain why King Charles I was executed… Lesson Objective: how significant was the execution of King Charles I on changing the balance of power and authority in England?
liam0001
*Updated* The Events of the English Civil War and the Role of the New Model Army

*Updated* The Events of the English Civil War and the Role of the New Model Army

Updated *Owing to marking the Paper 2: Shaping the Nation, Section A: Thematic Studies 2018 summer examination series for AQA, all of my resources have been amended and updated for students studying the AQA GCSE History syllabus. AQA GCSE History: Britain: Power and the People: c1170 to the Present Day - Part Two: Challenging Royal Authority Describe the different sides of the English Civil War. Explain the key events of the English Civil War. Lesson Objective: to what extent was the New Model Army responsible for the outcome of the English Civil War?
liam0001
*Updated* The Causes of the English Civil War

*Updated* The Causes of the English Civil War

Updated *Owing to marking the Paper 2: Shaping the Nation, Section A: Thematic Studies 2018 summer examination series for AQA, all of my resources have been amended and updated for students studying the AQA GCSE History syllabus. AQA GCSE History: Britain: Power and the People: c1170 to the Present Day - Part Two: Challenging Royal Authority Describe the causes of the English Civil War. Explain how and why the English Civil War started. Lesson Objective: what was the most important cause of the English Civil War?
liam0001
*Updated* The Impact of the Pilgrimage of Grace and Popular Uprising

*Updated* The Impact of the Pilgrimage of Grace and Popular Uprising

Updated *Owing to marking the Paper 2: Shaping the Nation, Section A: Thematic Studies 2018 summer examination series for AQA, all of my resources have been amended and updated for students studying the AQA GCSE History syllabus. AQA GCSE History: Britain: Power and the People: c1170 to the Present Day - Part Two: Challenging Royal Authority Describe the Pilgrimage of Grace. Explain how and why the Pilgrimage of Grace is significant. Lesson Objective: to what extent did the Pilgrimage of Grace change the balance of power in England?
liam0001
*Updated* The Causes of the Pilgrimage of Grace

*Updated* The Causes of the Pilgrimage of Grace

Updated *Owing to marking the Paper 2: Shaping the Nation, Section A: Thematic Studies 2018 summer examination series for AQA, all of my resources have been amended and updated for students studying the AQA GCSE History syllabus. AQA GCSE History: Britain: Power and the People: c1170 to the Present Day - Part Two: Challenging Royal Authority Describe the Pilgrimage of Grace. Explain why King Henry VIII faced a popular uprising in 1536. Lesson Objective: what was the main cause of the Pilgrimage of Grace?
liam0001
*Updated* Henry VIII, Tudor England and 'The Great Matter'

*Updated* Henry VIII, Tudor England and 'The Great Matter'

Updated *Owing to marking the Paper 2: Shaping the Nation, Section A: Thematic Studies 2018 summer examination series for AQA, all of my resources have been amended and updated for students studying the AQA GCSE History syllabus. AQA GCSE History: Britain: Power and the People: c1170 to the Present Day - Part Two: Challenging Royal Authority Describe the problems Henry VIII had during his reign. Explain why the monasteries were useful to Henry VIII. Lesson Objective: how far did the reign of Henry VIII change the dynamic of power between state and Church?
liam0001
*Updated* AQA GCSE History: Britain: Health and the People: c1000 to the Present Day Revision Guides

*Updated* AQA GCSE History: Britain: Health and the People: c1000 to the Present Day Revision Guides

Updated *Owing to marking the Britain: Health and the People: c1000 to the Present Day 2018 summer examination series for AQA, all of my resources have been amended and updated for students studying the AQA GCSE History syllabus. This bundle includes a revision guide for each unit of AQA GCSE History specification Britain: Health and the People: c1000 to the Present Day and one revision guide that focuses, thematic factors and examination questions. The topics considered are: Medicine Stands Still. • Medieval medicine: approaches including natural, supernatural, ideas of Hippocratic and Galenic methods and treatments; the medieval doctor; training, beliefs about cause of illness. • Medical progress: the contribution of Christianity to medical progress and treatment; hospitals; the nature and importance of Islamic medicine and surgery; surgery in medieval times, ideas and techniques. • Public health in the Middle Ages: towns and monasteries; the Black Death in Britain, beliefs about its causes, treatment and prevention. The Beginnings of Change. • The impact of the Renaissance on Britain: challenge to medical authority in anatomy, physiology and surgery; the work of Vesalius, Paré, William Harvey; opposition to change. • Dealing with disease: traditional and new methods of treatments; quackery; methods of treating disease; plague; the growth of hospitals; changes to the training and status of surgeons and physicians; the work of John Hunter. • Prevention of disease: inoculation; Edward Jenner, vaccination and opposition to change. A Revolution in Change. • The development of Germ Theory and its impact on the treatment of disease in Britain: the importance of Pasteur, Robert Koch and microbe hunting; Pasteur and vaccination; Paul Ehrlich and magic bullets; everyday medical treatments and remedies. • A revolution in surgery: anaesthetics, including Simpson and chloroform; antiseptics, including Lister and carbolic acid; surgical procedures; aseptic surgery. • Improvements in public health: public health problems in industrial Britain; cholera epidemics; the role of public health reformers; local and national government involvement in public health improvement, including the 1848 and 1875 Public Health Acts. Modern Medicine. • Modern treatment of disease: the development of the pharmaceutical industry; penicillin, its discovery by Fleming, its development; new diseases and treatments, antibiotic resistance; alternative treatments. • The impact of war and technology on surgery: plastic surgery; blood transfusions; X-rays; transplant surgery; modern surgical methods, including lasers, radiation therapy and keyhole surgery. • Modern public health: the importance of Booth, Rowntree, and the Boer War; the Liberal social reforms; the impact of two world wars on public health, poverty and housing; the Beveridge Report and the Welfare State; creation and development of the National Health Service; costs, choices and the issues of healthcare in the 21st century.
liam0001
*Updated* Revision Guide for AQA GCSE History Britain: Health and the People: c1000 the Present Day

*Updated* Revision Guide for AQA GCSE History Britain: Health and the People: c1000 the Present Day

Revision guide for the new AQA GCSE History specification Britain: Health and the People: c1000 to the Present Day. The revision guide specifically focuses on the entire unit of study with a specific focus on factors and examination questions. The topics considered are: Medicine Stands Still. • Medieval medicine: approaches including natural, supernatural, ideas of Hippocratic and Galenic methods and treatments; the medieval doctor; training, beliefs about cause of illness. • Medical progress: the contribution of Christianity to medical progress and treatment; hospitals; the nature and importance of Islamic medicine and surgery; surgery in medieval times, ideas and techniques. • Public health in the Middle Ages: towns and monasteries; the Black Death in Britain, beliefs about its causes, treatment and prevention. The Beginnings of Change. • The impact of the Renaissance on Britain: challenge to medical authority in anatomy, physiology and surgery; the work of Vesalius, Paré, William Harvey; opposition to change. • Dealing with disease: traditional and new methods of treatments; quackery; methods of treating disease; plague; the growth of hospitals; changes to the training and status of surgeons and physicians; the work of John Hunter. • Prevention of disease: inoculation; Edward Jenner, vaccination and opposition to change. A Revolution in Change. • The development of Germ Theory and its impact on the treatment of disease in Britain: the importance of Pasteur, Robert Koch and microbe hunting; Pasteur and vaccination; Paul Ehrlich and magic bullets; everyday medical treatments and remedies. • A revolution in surgery: anaesthetics, including Simpson and chloroform; antiseptics, including Lister and carbolic acid; surgical procedures; aseptic surgery. • Improvements in public health: public health problems in industrial Britain; cholera epidemics; the role of public health reformers; local and national government involvement in public health improvement, including the 1848 and 1875 Public Health Acts. Modern Medicine. • Modern treatment of disease: the development of the pharmaceutical industry; penicillin, its discovery by Fleming, its development; new diseases and treatments, antibiotic resistance; alternative treatments. • The impact of war and technology on surgery: plastic surgery; blood transfusions; X-rays; transplant surgery; modern surgical methods, including lasers, radiation therapy and keyhole surgery. • Modern public health: the importance of Booth, Rowntree, and the Boer War; the Liberal social reforms; the impact of two world wars on public health, poverty and housing; the Beveridge Report and the Welfare State; creation and development of the National Health Service; costs, choices and the issues of healthcare in the 21st century.
liam0001
*Updated* The Short-Term and Long-Term Consequences of the Black Death

*Updated* The Short-Term and Long-Term Consequences of the Black Death

Updated *Owing to marking the Britain: Health and the People: c1000 to the Present Day 2018 summer examination series for AQA, all of my resources have been amended and updated for students studying the AQA GCSE History syllabus. AQA GCSE History: Britain: Health and the People: c1000 to the Present Day - Medicine Stands Still Describe the impact of the Plague during the Middle Ages. Explain the short-term and long-term consequences of the Plague… Lesson Objective: to what extent did the Plague during Middle Ages change history?
liam0001
Scientific Revolution: Escape Room - Social Studies (The Age of Enlightenment)

Scientific Revolution: Escape Room - Social Studies (The Age of Enlightenment)

This breakout escape room is a fun way for students to test their knowledge about the key figures during the scientific revolution: Ambroise Paré, Andreas Vesalius, Antoine Lavoisier, Antoni Van Leeuwenhoek, Benjamin Franklin, Blaise Pascal, Carolus Linnaeus, Evangelista Torricelli, Francis Bacon, Galileo Galilei, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Isaac Newton, Johannes Kepler, Nicolaus Copernicus, René Descartes, Robert Boyle, Tycho Brahe, William Gilbert, William Harvey, Zacharias Janssen Contents: ♦ Teacher Instructions with Usage Guide and FAQ ♦ 20 Multiple Choice Questions ♦ 5 Decoders for each of the 5 Levels ♦ Student Recording Sheet and Teacher Answer Key ♦ Link to an optional, but recommended, digital breakout room
ScienceSpot
KS3 Reading List

KS3 Reading List

To promote wider reading and to help teach independent learning skills. Here is a suggested reading list, lots of My Story books for historical fiction, some academic books to stretch and challenge.
EverythingsR0sie
Stuarts - Complete set of lessons

Stuarts - Complete set of lessons

A complete set of lessons on the Stuarts. Includes a focus on developing the historical skill of interpretation. Was Guy Fawkes guilty? What were the causes of the English Civil War? What happened in the English Civil War and why did the Parliamentarians win? Should Charles I have been executed and what should happen after the execution? Was Cromwell a good or bad man? Which was worse - Great Fire of London or Great Plague? Why did people believe in witches and what happened to them?
Jrw1981
Tudor Crime and Punishment Study Guide

Tudor Crime and Punishment Study Guide

This resource focuses on how the dramatic increase in poverty and vagrancy in the 16th Century was criminalised and punished. If is an easy to use and accessible guide, focusing on: How poverty was treated in Tudor society. How crime was addressed by the Tudors. The results of uprisings against Tudor monarchs.
Mojo1441
Black Powder by Ally Sherrick - Teachers' resource pack

Black Powder by Ally Sherrick - Teachers' resource pack

Background notes, class activities, discussion topics and writing prompts to support class reading/study of Black Powder by award-winning children’s author, Ally Sherrick. The book, written for children of 9+ and published by Chicken House Books, tells the story of how two cousins, Tom Garnett and Cressida Montague, both Catholics but from very different backgrounds, get caught up in the infamous Gunpowder Plot of 1605. It has won two awards - the Historical Association’s Young Quills Award 2017 and the North Somerset Teachers’ Book Award 2017 (in the ‘Moving on’ category) and been shortlisted for eight others. The notes include a brief synopsis, a short essay by the author on her inspiration for the story, four classroom activities linked to the themes and historical background of the story - for example on spies and spying; religious persecution and prejudice and three topics for extended discussion/written work - for example on heroes, villains and anti-heroes. Key themes which the story and activities link into include: courage and cowardice, bullying and prejudice, family and friendship and acceptance of grief and separation from loved ones.
allysherrick