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#### Refraction Experiment - Snells' Law and Refractive Index

This experiment will verify Snell’s Law and to determine the refractive index of a perspex prism.
It should take 60 minutes to collate data, complete data analysis, conclude and evaluate. Clear direction is given throughout and sample data is included in the download.
Learning Objectives Covered in this experiment:
1. Describe an experiment that can verify Snell’s Law and measure the refractive index;
2. State and apply Snell’s Law.

#### Refraction - Questions and Worked Solutions

These questions are written as exam-style questions and can be completed by students in class or at home. The time allocated is 30 minutes.
Full working solutions are included in the download.
Learning Objectives Covered in these questions:
1. Describe the reflection and transmission of waves at a boundary between two media;
2. Draw wavefront and ray diagrams to illustrate refraction between media of different optical density;
3. Describe an experiment that can verify Snell’s Law and measure the refractive index;
4. State and apply Snell’s Law.

#### AQA Measurements and Their Errors - Question Bank and Solutions

Relates to AQA Topic 1: Measurements and Their Errors
Questions cover the whole of this topic and full worked solutions are included.
Learning Objectives:
A working knowledge of the specified fundamental (base) units of measurement is vital. Likewise, practical work in the subject needs to be underpinned by an awareness of the nature of measurement errors and of their numerical treatment. The ability to carry through reasonable estimations is a skill that is required throughout the course and beyond.
Download Includes:
Question bank and full worked solutions

#### Refraction - Disappearing and Reappearing Coin

A student worksheet and answers are included in the download.
This demonstration introduces refraction through the bending of light rays through water. The coin will appear to disappear in the first demonstration, and reappear in the second demonstration.
It should take 15 minutes.
Instructions
1. Students should be given a paper copy of the accompanying questions to the demonstration.
2. Talk through the answers to the questions as the demonstration progresses.
Learning Objectives Covered in this starter demonstration:
1. Describe the reflection and transmission of waves at a boundary between two media;
2. Draw wavefront and ray diagrams to illustrate refraction between media of different optical density.

#### Investigating Energy in Capacitors - Practical Worksheet and Sample Data

Aim:
To investigate how the voltage across a a capacitor affects the energy stored in the capacitor.
The following learning objectives are met in this experiment:
- Calculate the energy stored in a capacitor from a charge-voltage graph;
- Select and use the energy equations for a capacitor.
Download Includes:
Practical Worksheet AND Sample data and analysis

#### Capacitors - Questions and Worked Solutions

The following learning objectives are met in this set of questions:
- Define Capacitance and the Farad;
- Select and use Q=CV;
- Describe the construction of a capacitor and understand that a dielectric between the plates will increase the capacitance;
- Use C = Epsilon0*A/d for a parallel plate capacitor, with no dielectric;
- State and use the equations for capacitors connected in series and parallel;
- Describe the uses of a capacitor for the storage of energy in applications such as flash photography and back-up power supplies.
Download Includes:
Student worksheet AND Worked Solutions

#### AQA - Measurements and their Errors - Topic Test and Markscheme

AQA Topic 1: Measurements and their Errors – Topic Test
Learning Objectives:
A working knowledge of the specified fundamental (base) units of measurement is vital. Likewise, practical work in the subject needs to be underpinned by an awareness of the nature of measurement errors and of their numerical treatment. The ability to carry through reasonable estimations is a skill that is required throughout the course and beyond.
Download Includes:
Topic Test and Marking Scheme

#### Capacitor Discharge - Powerpoint Presentation

The following learning objectives are met in this powerpoint presentation:
- Sketch graphs to show the variation with time of potential difference, charge and current for a capacitor discharging through a resistor;
- Define the time constant of a circuit and use Time Constant = CR;
- Explain the exponential decay function as having a constant ratio property;
- Analyse the discharge of a capacitor using exponential decay equations;
Perform and describe an experiment to determine the time constant for R-C circuits.

#### Refraction - Keynote (for Apple Products)

This keynote presentation is editable and should take 30 minutes.
The following learning objectives are met in this keynote presentation:
1 - Describe the reflection and transmission of waves at a boundary between two media;
2 - Draw wavefront and ray diagrams to illustrate refraction between media of different optical density;
3 - Describe an experiment that can verify Snell’s Law and measure the refractive index;
4 - State and apply Snell’s Law.

#### Capacitor Discharge - Questions and Worked Solutions

The following learning objectives are met in this set of questions:
- Sketch graphs to show the variation with time of potential difference, charge and current for a capacitor discharging through a resistor;
- Define the time constant of a circuit and use Time Constant = CR;
- Explain the exponential decay function as having a constant ratio property;
- Analyse the discharge of a capacitor using exponential decay equations;
Download Includes:
Student Worksheet AND worked solutions

#### Capacitor Discharge - Starter Demonstration, Student Worksheet and Answers

This starter demonstration will highlight the relationship between the value of the resistor and the capacitor on the discharge rate. Students will see the voltmeter drop quickly to begin with and then tail off. The time constant will be introduced.
The following learning objectives are met in this starter demonstration:
- Sketch graphs to show the variation with time of potential difference, charge and current for a capacitor discharging through a resistor;
- Define the time constant of a circuit and use Time Constant = CR;
Download Includes:
Teacher Instructions, Student worksheet AND answers

#### Energy in Capacitors - Starter Questions and Answers

The following learning objectives are met in this set of starter questions:
- Explain how energy is stored within a capacitor;
- Select and use the energy equations for a capacitor.
Download Includes:
Student worksheet AND Answers

#### Investigating Capacitor Discharge - Practical Worksheet and Sample Data

Aim:
To investigate how the voltage varies with time across a discharging capacitor.
The following learning objectives are met in this experiment:
- Sketch graphs to show the variation with time of potential difference, charge and current for a capacitor discharging through a resistor;
- Define the time constant of a circuit and use Time Constant = CR;
- Explain the exponential decay function as having a constant ratio property;
- Perform and describe an experiment to determine the time constant for R-C circuits.
Download Includes:
Practical Worksheet AND Sample data and analysis

#### Energy in Capacitors - Powerpoint Presentation

The following learning objectives are met in this powerpoint presentation:
- Explain how energy is stored within a capacitor;
- Calculate the energy stored in a capacitor from a charge-voltage graph;
- Select and use the energy equations for a capacitor.

#### Capacitors - Powerpoint Presentation

The following learning objectives are met in this powerpoint presentation:
- Define Capacitance and the Farad;
- Select and use Q=CV;
- Describe the construction of a capacitor and understand that a dielectric between the plates will increase the capacitance;
- Use C = Epsilon0*A/d for a parallel plate capacitor, with no dielectric;
- State and use the equations for capacitors connected in series and parallel;
- Describe the uses of a capacitor for the storage of energy in applications such as flash photography and back-up power supplies.

#### Investigating Capacitors in Series - Practical Worksheet and Sample Data

Aim:
Investigate the effect of connecting capacitors in series on the voltage across a discharging capacitor.
Learning objectives met in this experiment:
- State and use the equations for capacitors connected in series and parallel;
Download Includes:
Practical Worksheet AND Sample data and analysis

#### Energy in Capacitors - Questions and Worked Solutions

The following learning objectives are met in this set of questions:
- Explain how energy is stored within a capacitor;
- Calculate the energy stored in a capacitor from a charge-voltage graph;
- Select and use the energy equations for a capacitor.
Download Includes:
Student worksheet AND worked solutions.

#### CIE Electricity - Topic Test and Marking Scheme

CIE Electricity – Topic Test
Includes:
Topic 19 – Current of Electricity
Topic 20 – D.C Circuits
Learning Objectives:
- Introduces the ideas of charge and current.
- Knowledge and understanding of electrical symbols, electromotive force, potential difference, resistivity and power are key in this topic.
- An understanding of electrical circuits, internal resistance and potential dividers.
- LDRs and thermistors are used to show how changes in light intensity and temperature respectively can be monitored using potential dividers.
Download Includes:
Topic Test and Marking Scheme

#### CCEA Electricity - Topic Test and Marking Scheme

CCEA Unit 1.9 – 1.12: Electricity – Topic Test
Learning Objectives:
- Introduces the ideas of charge and current.
- Knowledge and understanding of electrical symbols, electromotive force, potential difference, resistivity and power are key in this topic.
- An understanding of electrical circuits, internal resistance and potential dividers.
- LDRs and thermistors are used to show how changes in light intensity and temperature respectively can be monitored using potential dividers.
Download Includes:
Topic Test and Marking Scheme

#### Capacitors - Starter Demonstration - Bin Bag Capacitor

This demonstration will introduce how a capacitor is constructed. It will also introduce the distribution of charge on a capacitor as it charges and discharges. At the end of the demonstration, it will be possible to observe the breakdown of the dielectric material within a capacitor.
The following learning objectives are met in this starter demonstration:
- Describe the construction of a capacitor and understand that a dielectric between the plates will increase the capacitance.
Download Includes:
Teacher Instructions, Student worksheet AND full answers