Historical e-Atlas Ireland

Historical e-Atlas Ireland

Ireland in 45 historical maps: 1150-2010 (136 pages). The name Ireland is derived from the Celtic word Eire, meaning "the fertile place". On ancient (world) maps the Latin name Hibernia or Ibernia (later Irlandia) was used, which refers to the wintry or cold climate of this remote place. Ireland was already described by Ptolemy in his Geographia (150AD). The accompanying maps were worked out again by European cartographers at the end of the 15th century. Being part of the British Isles, Ireland is also depicted on the Mappa Mundi in medieval times. The coastline was drawn in more detail on 15th century Portolan charts (nautical maps). The first (printed) separate maps of Ireland appeared in the 16th century.
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Historical e-Atlas Cuba et al. Caribbean islands

Historical e-Atlas Cuba et al. Caribbean islands

Cuba et al. Caribbean islands in 38 historical maps: 1502-2010 (122 pages). The origin of the name Cuba is uncertain. Most likely it is means Taino cubao (“abundant fertile land” or Coabana (“great place”). On early maps of Cuba and other Caribbean islands they were called the West Indies by European cartographers. This in contrast to the East Indies of present-day SE Asia. The region appeared for the first time on the manuscript map of Juan de la Cosa (1500), who had sailed to the West together with Columbus, and the Cantino world map (1502). On the map of Ribero (1529) the coastlines are depicted remarkably accurate. The first separately printed maps were published at the end of the 16th century.
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Historical e-Atlas Austria

Historical e-Atlas Austria

Austria in 30 historical maps: 1493-2010 (106 pages. Austria (German Österreich) means “Eastern March”. In Medieval times it was named in Latin: Marchia Orientalis. It is a former eastern prefecture of the Duchy of Bavaria, established in 976. The borders of Austria would change numerous times in the course of history, as shown on the maps in this atlas. In ca. 1560 the first separately printed map was published by the Hungarian cartographer Lazius. His map was used by famous cartographers, among them: Ortelius, Mercator and the Blaeu family.
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Historical e-Atlas Saudi Arabia

Historical e-Atlas Saudi Arabia

Saudi Arabia in 36 historical maps: 1154-2010 (118 pages). Saudi Arabia means "Arabia of the Sauds", referring to the ruling dynasty. The dynasty itself took its name from its patriarch Saud, whose name means 'constellation'. Arabia itself is a Latin name, probably of Semitic origin, although as early as Ancient Egypt the region was known as Ar Rabi. The first separate map of the region was designed by Ptolemy (150AD). The map was worked out again by European cartographers at the end of the 15th century. The first separately printed maps of (Saudi) Arabia appeared in the late 16th century.
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Historical e-Atlas Hungary

Historical e-Atlas Hungary

Hungary in 31 historical maps: 1493-2010 (108 pages) The name Hungary means “Alliance of the ten tribes”. Byzantine chronicles gave this name to the Hungarians; the chroniclers mistakenly assumed that the Hungarians had Turkish origins, based on their Turkish-nomadic customs and appearance, despite the Uralic language of the people. The Hungarian tribes later actually formed an alliance of the 7 Hungarian and 3 Khazarian tribes, but the name is from before then, and first applied to the original seven Hungarian tribes. The ethnonym Hunni, referring to the Huns, has influenced the Latin (and English) spelling. The first separately printed map of Hungary (and surroundings) appeared in 1528. More detailed maps were included in the atlases of Ortelius and Mercator at the end of the 16th century.
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Historical e-Atlas Portugal

Historical e-Atlas Portugal

Portugal in 29 historical maps: 1375-2010 (104 pages) On ancient maps the Latin name Iberia is used to identify the Spanish peninsula (Spain and Portugal). It is derived from the Greek word Iberes, meaning "the Celtic people of Spain". But it may also refer to the river Ebro in Spain. Most likely the name Portugal means "beautiful port". The first part refers to the Latin word Portus. The second part may be derived from the Greek word kallis. Spain and Portugal were already described by Ptolemy in his Geographia (150AD). The accompanying maps were worked out again by European cartographers at the end of the 15th century. The coastline was drawn in more detail on 14th century Portolan charts (nautical maps). The first separately printed map of Portugal appeared in the 16th century (about 1560).
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Historical e-Atlas Spain

Historical e-Atlas Spain

Spain in 42 historical maps: 1339-2010 (130 pages) On ancient maps the Latin name Iberia is used to identify the Spanish peninsula (Spain and Portugal). It is derived from the Greek word Iberes, meaning “the Celtic people of Spain”. But it may also refer to the river Ebro in Spain. The name Spain (España) is derived from the Roman name Hispania. Most likely it refers to Spain lying at the end or western edge of the Mediterranean region. (In classical times this was the known world.) It may be evolved from the Iberian word Hispalis, meaning “city of the western world”. It may also be evolved from the Greek term Hesperia, reflecting the Greek perception of Italy as a “land of the setting sun” or “western land” and Spain, lying still further west, as Hesperia ultima. Spain (and Portugal) were already described by Ptolemy in his Geographia (150AD). The accompanying maps were worked out again by European cartographers at the end of the 15th century. The coastline was drawn in more detail on 14th century Portolan charts (nautical maps). The first separately printed maps appeared in the 16th century.
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Historical e-Atlas New Zealand

Historical e-Atlas New Zealand

New Zealand in 24 historical maps: 1642-2010 (94 pages). New Zealand is named after the province of Zeeland in the Netherlands, which means “sea land”, referring to the large number of islands it contains. Abel Tasman, the first European explorer reaching the country in 1642, referred to New Zealand as Staten Landt. But later Dutch cartographers used Zeelandia Nova (Latin), followed by Nieuw-Zeeland in Dutch. Aotearoa has become the most common name for the country in the indigenous Maori language, meaning “land of the long white cloud”. After Tasman's discovery of NZ, parts of its Western coastline appeared for the first time on the famous world (wall) map of the Blaeu family in 1648. It was assumed that the North- and South Island were connected. It took more than 100 years until the whole coastline was mapped, after Captain Cook had circumnavigated the country.
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Historical e-Atlas Argentina & Chile

Historical e-Atlas Argentina & Chile

Argentina and Chile in 37 historical maps: 1502-2010 (120 pages). The name Argentina refers to the Río de la Plata (Latin: Argenteus), meaning “Silver River”. It was given by the explorer Sebastian Cabot in the 1520s after acquiring some silver trinkets from a local tribe (the Guaraní). The origin of the name Chile is uncertain. It may be derived from the Mapuche word Chili , meaning “where the land ends”. (The Mapuche are a group of indigenous inhabitants of south-central Chile and south-western Argentina, including parts of the region Patagonia.) The name Patagonia (Patagão), covering large parts of present-day Argentina and Chile, was introduced by the Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan (1519-1522 voyage). It means “Land of big feet” referring to the huge people he reported to have seen. The southernmost part of South-America was first drawn on the famous Cantino map (1502), followed by a more accurate map of Ribero in 1527. The first maps of Argentina and Chile resembling the modern maps nowadays did not appear until the midst of the 19th century. This was after their independence from Spain in 1810 (Chile) and 1816 (Argentina).
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Historical e-Atlas Netherlands & Belgium

Historical e-Atlas Netherlands & Belgium

Netherlands and Belgium in 35 historical maps: 1480-2010 (116 pages). The general name Low Countries is often used for the region covering both The Netherlands and Belgium. The name Netherlands (Dutch: Nederland ) is used for the northern country. It means “low lying lands”. The name Holland (Latin: Hollandia), covering the provinces Noord- and Zuid-Holland, is sometimes used to identify the whole country. It is probably derived from the Germanic word holt-land (“wooded land”) or it may refer to “hollow” or “marsh land”. The name Belgium, for the southern country, came into use after their independence from the United Netherlands in 1830. The name refers to “Land of the Belgae”, a Celtic tribe in he Roman province of Gallia Belgica (Belgic Gaul). The name’s origin is uncertain, but it may be derived from the Proto-Indo-European word bhelgh-, meaning “to bulge” or “to swell”. An alternative theory suggests that it means “bright”. On early maps, the name for the province of Flanders (Latin: Flandria) was also used to identify the whole country. The first printed separate maps of the Low Countries appeared in the midst of the 16th century. In the following period the Latin name Germania Inferior was often used to identify this region, e.g. in Ortelius famous world atlas (1570).
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Historical e-Atlas England

Historical e-Atlas England

England in 32 historical maps: 1480-2010 (110 pages). In medieval times the name England (or Latin Anglia) was often used to identify the entire island of Great Britain. It means "Land of the Angles" and refers to the Celtic people living on the island prior to the Anglo-Saxon conquest. On later maps Anglia was limited to the southern part of the Island, and Scotia (Scotland) identified the Northern part. England was already described by Ptolemy in his Geographia (150AD). The accompanying maps were worked out again by European cartographers at the end of the 15th century. The first (printed) separate maps appeared at the end of the 16th century.
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Historical e-Atlas Malta

Historical e-Atlas Malta

Malta in 30 historical maps: 1480-2014 (106 pages). The name Malta is either from Greek or Phoenician origin. The presence of the Greek dates back to 700BC when they called the island Melita, which refers to "(land of) honey". The name was also used by the Romans during their domination of the island. The alternative Phoenician theory refers to the word Maleth, meaning "a haven". The name Melita is used on the earliest maps, the name Malta on modern maps. On 17th century maps both names were often applied. The island already appears as a small (green) spot on regional maps of Ptolemy (c.150AD/c.1480). The first (printed) separate maps of Malta were published in the early 16th century.
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Historical e-Atlas Denmark

Historical e-Atlas Denmark

Denmark in 32 historical maps: 1375-2010 (110 pages). The name Denmark probably means “Flat Borderlands”. Most likely it is derived from the Proto-Indo-European word dhen (meaning “low” or “flat”) and the Old Norse words merki (“boundary”) or mork (“borderland”). Although out of shape, the country is clearly visible on the first maps based on Ptolemy’s descriptions (c.1480). It looks like an appendix North of Germany. On the famous overview map of Scandinavia, made by Olaus Magnus (1539), the border of Denmark is depicted more accurately. One of the first separate maps was included in Sebastian Munster’s encyclopaedia (1544). The first separately printed (hand-coloured) map, based on the work of the Danish Cartographer Marcus Jordan (1552), was published by Ortelius in 1570.
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Historical e-Atlas Madagascar

Historical e-Atlas Madagascar

Madagascar in 32 historical maps: 1502-2010 (110 pages). The name Madagascar was given by Portuguese explorers in the early 16th century. It is derived from Madageiscar, a corruption of Mogadishu, popularized by Marco Polo. In the 17th century various names were used by other European explorers and mapmakers. For example S.Laurentii (Latin) by the Dutch, Saint Laurence by the British and Isle Dauphine by the French. After being discovered by the Portuguese explorer Diaz the large island appeared on the world maps from about 1500 onwards. The first separately printed maps were made in the midst of the 16th century.
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Historical e-Atlas Egypt

Historical e-Atlas Egypt

Egypt in 34 historical maps: 1480-2010 (114 pages). According to the classical scholar Strabo (20BC) the name Egypt is derived from the Greek Aigaíou Hyptíos, which means the “(Land) below the Aegean (sea)". The first separate map of the region was designed by Ptolemy (150AD). The map was worked out again by European cartographers at the end of the 15th century. The first separately printed maps of Egypt appeared in the (early) 16th century. Mostly, only the northern part (the Nile delta) of present-day Egypt was depicted. In the 17th century the coverage was extended to the south.
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Historical e-Atlas Mexico

Historical e-Atlas Mexico

Mexico in 34 historical maps: 1527-2010 (114 pages). The origin of the name Mexico (Mexihca) is uncertain. Most likely it means "navel of the moon", based on Nahuatl metztli (moon) and xictli (navel).* It may also be derived from Mexihco, the name of the ancient Aztec capital, given by the Spanish colonists. At the end of the 16th century and early 17th century the name Mexico was also used on maps to identify large parts of present day United States. The Latin name Nova Hispania (New Spain) was used for a smaller region centred around the present-day capital Mexico City. On the world map of Ribero (1527) the eastern coastline of present-day Mexico is depicted remarkably accurate. On the atlas maps made by the Dieppe school (1547) the western coastline is also shown. One of the first separately engraved maps of Mexico was made by Italian cartographers in 1561. Numerous copies of other European cartographers would follow. *Nahuatl is a language spoken by the native inhabitants of Mexico
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Historical e-Atlas Turkey

Historical e-Atlas Turkey

Turkey in 32 historical maps: 1480-2010 (110 pages). The name Turkey refers to Land of the Turks. The name for this ethnic group was first used by the ancient Greek and means "(strong) owner". Turkey was also described by Ptolemy in his Geographia (150AD). The accompanying maps were worked out again by European cartographers at the end of the 15th century. Numerous separately printed maps of the country appeared in the following centuries. The western part of present-day Turkey was named Asia Minor (Little Asia) or (A)Natolia - meaning East or "sunrise" - on 16th and 17th century maps.
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Historical e-Atlas Iceland

Historical e-Atlas Iceland

Iceland in 32 historical maps: 1528-2010 (110 pages). Iceland means "Land of Ice". The Old Norse name is Ísland. On early maps the Latin name Islandia is mostly used. Iceland is clearly depicted on the famous map of Scandinavia (1539) made by Olaus Magnus. The first separately printed map of the country appeared a few years later. The first full colour map was published by Ortelius in 1590. In the course of history numerous native cartographers turned up and produced a string of great maps of the country. E.g. Gudbrandur Thorlaksson (c.1590), Thordur Thorlaksson (1668), Eiriksson (1780), Gunnlaugsson (1849) and Thoroddsen (1900).
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Historical e-Atlas Israel

Historical e-Atlas Israel

Israel in 35 historical maps: 1320-2010 (116 pages). The (Latin) name Israel refers to the Jewish people and their nation. It originates from the Hebrew Bible as an appellation given to the biblical patriarch Jacob. The exact meaning of the name is uncertain. Most likely its original Hebrew name Yisra'el is derived from the words sara(r) and El, meaning "he who fought or contended with God". The name was given to Jacob and extended to his descendants. They came to be known as the Israelites, eventually forming the tribes of Israel and ultimately the kingdom of Israel. Since the formation of the independent Jewish state, in 1948, it’s the official name of the country. Being the heart of the Holy Land numerous maps of the country have been made in the course of the history of cartography. On early (medieval) maps, based on the T-O concept, Israel and its capital Jerusalem were regarded as the centre of the world. Even until the end of the 18th century cartographers incorporated biblical events and figures in their maps, referring to the time of the Old and New Testament.
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Historical e-Atlas Switzerland

Historical e-Atlas Switzerland

Switzerland in 35 historical maps: 1513-2010 (116 pages). The name Switzerland (Schweiz, Suisse) means Land of the Switzers (Swiss people). It refers to Schwyz, one of the founding cantons of the country. Its origin is uncertain: it may be derived from the Anglo-Saxon term swiþ- (meaning "strong") or from the Germanic word swint- or Celtic word sveit- ("clearing"). The present name came into use on maps during the 17th century. On earlier maps the Latin name Helvetia was used. This name refers to the Celtic tribes which lived in the area, prior to the people who immigrated from Germany. The first separately printed maps of Helvetia appeared in the early 16th century.
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Historical e-Atlas Poland

Historical e-Atlas Poland

Poland in 35 historical maps: 1375-2010 (116 pages). The name Poland means “Land of Polans”. It refers to an ancient tribe occupying the territory. Most likely it is derived from the Polish word pole, which means “(open) field”. When the Polans formed a united Poland (Polska) in the 10th century, this name also came into use for the whole Polish country. On Cresques famous map of Europe (Catalan atlas, 1375) the Latin name Polonia is used. During the next centuries this Latin name was mostly used by established cartographers such as Munster, Ortelius, Mercator and Blaeu. Munster’s map (ca. 1540) was one of the first separately printed maps of the country. The map was based on earlier work of Bernard Wapowski (ca. 1526), being the ‘father of Polish cartography’.
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Historical e-Atlas India

Historical e-Atlas India

India in 38 historical maps: 1467-2010 (122 pages). The name India is referring to the Indus river (or Sindhu) and has been in use in Greek since Herodotus (4th century BC). An alternative name is Hindustan. In the 19th century, the term as was only used to identify the northern part of present-day India. India was already described by Ptolemy in about 150AD. The accompanying maps were worked out at the end of the 15th century by European cartographers. The size and shape are not very accurate on these maps. The island of present-day Sri Lanka is relatively large and positioned at the south-west side. From 1502 onwards (Cantino map and later) India is finally depicted by its characteristic V-shape, due to new chartings by Portuguese explorers.
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