Historical e-Atlas United Kingdom

Historical e-Atlas United Kingdom

United Kingdom in 48 historical maps: 1025-2010 (150 pages). The UK is a self-descriptive short-form name for “United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland”. * The name Great Britain or Larger Britain, from Mediaeval Latin Britannia Maior, was first recorded by Geoffrey of Monmouth, who used it to distinguish the island from Britannia Minor (Little Britain) or Brittany in modern France. The name Britain (or Latin name Britannia) most likely originates - via French or Welsh (Prydain) - from pretani, meaning the “painted ones”. It refers to the use of body-paint and tattoos by early inhabitants of the islands. It may also be derived from the Celtic goddess Brigid. The British Isles were already described by Ptolemy in his Geographia (150AD). The accompanying maps were worked out again by European cartographers at the end of the 15th century. The first (printed) separate maps appeared in the 16th century. *Before the independence of Ireland in 1916, the UK comprised present-day England (plus Wales), Scotland, Northern-Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. The term British Isles is still used to identify these 5 entities.
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Historical e-Atlas Scandinavia

Historical e-Atlas Scandinavia

Norway, Sweden & Finland in 39 historical maps: 1321-2010 (128 pages) In the 17th century the Latin name Scandinavia appeared on maps identifying the most northern part of western Europe (Norway, Sweden and Finland). It is derived from the Proto-Germanic word skadinaujo. The second part of the word refers to the waters surrounding the region. Parts of Scandinavia were already described by Ptolemy in his Geographia (150AD). The accompanying maps were worked out again by European cartographers at the end of the 15th century. The first separately printed maps appeared in the early 16th century. The name Norway, or its native name Norge, means the “Northern Way”. It refers to the long coastal passages from the western tip of Norway to its northernmost lands in the Arctic. The name Sweden (or Svitjod in Old Norse) means “One’s own people”. The name Finland means “Land of the Finns”. The origin of the word Finn is uncertain: it may be derived from the Proto-Germanic finne (meaning “wanderers” or “hunting-folk”).
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Historical e-Atlas Iran

Historical e-Atlas Iran

Iran in 37 historical maps: 1154-2010 (124 pages) Iran refers to “Land of the Aryans”. The term Arya is from a Proto Indo-European root, generally meaning “noble” or “free”. Iran was formerly known as Persia in the west, until Shah Reza Pahlavi officially asked the international community in 1935 to name the country by the name Iran. The name Persia comes from the ancient Greek word Persis , which is a translation for what the Persians around the world called Pars, a region in the south of Iran. Urban civilization in Persia dates back at least 9000 years.
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Historical e-Atlas Korea

Historical e-Atlas Korea

North- and South-Korea in 28 historical maps: 1402-2010 (108 pages) Korea refers to Gaoli, Marco Polo’s Italian rendition of Gāo Lì, the Chinese name for Goryeo, which had named itself after the earlier Goguryeo. The original name was a combination of the adjective go (meaning “lofty”) and a local Yemaek tribe, whose original name is thought to have been either Guru (“walled city”) or Gauri (“centre”). After the Korean war the peninsula Korea was divided into North- and South-Korea. First from 1945 along the 38th parallel and since 1953, along the demarcation line. South Koreans call Korea Hanguk, from Samhan. North Koreans call it Chosŏn from Gojoseon. Pyongyang became the capital city of North-Korea, Seoul the capital city of South-Korea. The first more accurate maps of the Korean peninsula made by European cartographers did appear just half of the 18th century. * *NOTE: Apart from the Ming map (1390) and Gangnido map (1402/1560), all maps included in this atlas are made by European and American cartographers and therefor do represent a Western view of both countries.
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Historical e-Atlas Cuba et al. Caribbean islands

Historical e-Atlas Cuba et al. Caribbean islands

Cuba et al. Caribbean islands in 38 historical maps: 1502-2010 (122 pages). The origin of the name Cuba is uncertain. Most likely it is means Taino cubao (“abundant fertile land” or Coabana (“great place”). On early maps of Cuba and other Caribbean islands they were called the West Indies by European cartographers. This in contrast to the East Indies of present-day SE Asia. The region appeared for the first time on the manuscript map of Juan de la Cosa (1500), who had sailed to the West together with Columbus, and the Cantino world map (1502). On the map of Ribero (1529) the coastlines are depicted remarkably accurate. The first separately printed maps were published at the end of the 16th century.
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Historical e-Atlas Austria

Historical e-Atlas Austria

Austria in 30 historical maps: 1493-2010 (106 pages. Austria (German Österreich) means “Eastern March”. In Medieval times it was named in Latin: Marchia Orientalis. It is a former eastern prefecture of the Duchy of Bavaria, established in 976. The borders of Austria would change numerous times in the course of history, as shown on the maps in this atlas. In ca. 1560 the first separately printed map was published by the Hungarian cartographer Lazius. His map was used by famous cartographers, among them: Ortelius, Mercator and the Blaeu family.
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Historical e-Atlas Saudi Arabia

Historical e-Atlas Saudi Arabia

Saudi Arabia in 36 historical maps: 1154-2010 (118 pages). Saudi Arabia means "Arabia of the Sauds", referring to the ruling dynasty. The dynasty itself took its name from its patriarch Saud, whose name means 'constellation'. Arabia itself is a Latin name, probably of Semitic origin, although as early as Ancient Egypt the region was known as Ar Rabi. The first separate map of the region was designed by Ptolemy (150AD). The map was worked out again by European cartographers at the end of the 15th century. The first separately printed maps of (Saudi) Arabia appeared in the late 16th century.
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Historical e-Atlas Hungary

Historical e-Atlas Hungary

Hungary in 31 historical maps: 1493-2010 (108 pages) The name Hungary means “Alliance of the ten tribes”. Byzantine chronicles gave this name to the Hungarians; the chroniclers mistakenly assumed that the Hungarians had Turkish origins, based on their Turkish-nomadic customs and appearance, despite the Uralic language of the people. The Hungarian tribes later actually formed an alliance of the 7 Hungarian and 3 Khazarian tribes, but the name is from before then, and first applied to the original seven Hungarian tribes. The ethnonym Hunni, referring to the Huns, has influenced the Latin (and English) spelling. The first separately printed map of Hungary (and surroundings) appeared in 1528. More detailed maps were included in the atlases of Ortelius and Mercator at the end of the 16th century.
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Historical e-Atlas Netherlands & Belgium

Historical e-Atlas Netherlands & Belgium

Netherlands and Belgium in 37 historical maps: 1480-2010 (136 pages). The general name Low Countries is often used for the region covering both The Netherlands and Belgium. The name Netherlands (Dutch: Nederland ) is used for the northern country. It means “low lying lands”. The name Holland (Latin: Hollandia), covering the provinces Noord- and Zuid-Holland, is sometimes used to identify the whole country. It is probably derived from the Germanic word holt-land (“wooded land”) or it may refer to “hollow” or “marsh land”. The name Belgium, for the southern country, came into use after their independence from the United Netherlands in 1830. The name refers to “Land of the Belgae”, a Celtic tribe in he Roman province of Gallia Belgica (Belgic Gaul). The name’s origin is uncertain, but it may be derived from the Proto-Indo-European word bhelgh-, meaning “to bulge” or “to swell”. An alternative theory suggests that it means “bright”. On early maps, the name for the province of Flanders (Latin: Flandria) was also used to identify the whole country. The first printed separate maps of the Low Countries appeared in the midst of the 16th century. In the following period the Latin name Germania Inferior was often used to identify this region, e.g. in Ortelius famous world atlas (1570). The origin of the capital city Amsterdam goes back to ca. 1270. A dam with floodgates was constructed in the river Amstel and the place became an important natural harbour. The origin of the capital city Brussels goes back to the 7th century. It refers to a Frank settlement called Bruoscella (meaning ‘settlement in the swamp’). Maps of both cities were included in the first European town atlas, published by Hogenberg & Braun in 1572.
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Historical e-Atlas Iceland

Historical e-Atlas Iceland

Iceland in 34 historical maps: 1528-2010 (122 pages). Iceland means “Land of Ice”. The Old Norse name is Ísland. On early maps the Latin name Islandia is mostly used. Iceland is clearly depicted on the famous map of Scandinavia (1539) made by Olaus Magnus. The first separately printed map of the country appeared a few years later. The first full colour map was published by Ortelius in 1590. In the course of history numerous native cartographers turned up and produced a string of great maps of the country. E.g. Gudbrandur Thorlaksson (c.1590), Thordur Thorlaksson (1668), Eiriksson (1780), Gunnlaugsson (1849) and Thoroddsen (1900). The capital city Reykjavik is located at a farm of the first Viking inhabitant (ca. 875 AD). In 1785 a charter was granted to the city and in 1918 it became the capital.
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Historical e-Atlas Italy

Historical e-Atlas Italy

Italy in 43 historical maps: 1250-2010 (140 pages). The name Italy (in Latin: Italia) can be traced back to ancient times for the peninsula, though it was initially designated for the region of the lower part of Southern Italy by Greek settlers. Most likely it is derived from the ancient word Viteliu, meaning “land of young cattle”. Italy had been a rich agricultural country since ancient times. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire and the Lombard invasions, Italia gradually became the collective name for various sovereign entities present on the peninsula. Italy was already described by Ptolemy in his Geographia (150AD). The accompanying maps were worked out again by European cartographers at the end of the 15th century. It is also depicted on the Portolan charts during the late middle ages, when the Mediterranean was a centre for navigation and trade. The first printed separate maps of Italy appeared in the early 16th century. The city of Rome was most likely founded in 752 BC. It was once the capital of the Roman Empire (27BC - 476AD) and is now both the capital of Italy and the seat of the RC church. A map of the city was included in the first European town atlas, published by Hogenberg & Braun in 1572.
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Historical e-Atlas Germany

Historical e-Atlas Germany

Germany in 40 historical maps: 1375-2010 (134 pages). The name Germany and other similar names are all derived from the Latin word Germania. Julius Caesar was the first to use the word Germanus in his writings when describing tribes in north-eastern Gaul (region stretching out from present-day France). However, its origin remains uncertain. A number of (German) historians suggest that the word has Celtic roots. E.g. it may be derived from: gair (neighbour), gar (“noisy”, referring to the tribesman) or hari (“man at arms”). In English-speaking regions, the word German first appeared in about1520, replacing earlier uses of Alman and Dutch. Germany was already described by Ptolemy in his Geographia (150AD). The accompanying maps were worked out again by European cartographers at the end of the 15th century. It is also depicted on the Mappa Mundi during the middle ages. The first printed separate maps of the country appeared in the early 16th century. The history of the city Berlin dates back to ca. 1240. After the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989, leading to the unification of West- and East Germany, it became the capital of Germany.
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Historical e-Atlas Ireland

Historical e-Atlas Ireland

Ireland in 47 historical maps: 1150-2010 (148 pages). The name Ireland is derived from the Celtic word Eire, meaning “the fertile place”. On ancient (world) maps the Latin name Hibernia or Ibernia (later Irlandia) was used, which refers to the wintry or cold climate of this remote place. Ireland was already described by Ptolemy in his Geographia (150AD). The accompanying maps were worked out again by European cartographers at the end of the 15th century. Being part of the British Isles, Ireland is also depicted on the Mappa Mundi in medieval times. The coastline was drawn in more detail on 15th century Portolan charts (nautical maps). The first (printed) separate maps of Ireland appeared in the 16th century. The capital city Dublin was founded by the Vikings in about 900AD. An early settlement was described by Ptolemy and called Eblana. An (inset) map of the city was made by John Speed in 1610, which also appeared in the town atlas of Hogenberg & Braun a few years later.
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Historical e-Atlas Scotland

Historical e-Atlas Scotland

Scotland in 46 historical maps: 1250-2010 (146 pages). The origin of the name Scotland is uncertain. Most likely it was introduced by the Greeks and Romans. It may be derived from the Greek word Scotos, a term applied to the Gaels (Celtic tribe). Or from the Latin word Sco(t)ti, which means “dark”, referring to the foggy climate. By the end of the 11th century the Late Latin word Scotia (land of the Scots) was being used to refer to (Gaelic-speaking) Scotland north of the river Forth. Caledonia is also an old Latin name for Scotland, referring tot the Caledonii tribes. It is possibly based on a Brythonic word for “hard” or “tough” (represented by the modern Welsh caled). Being part of the British Isles, Scotland was already described by Ptolemy in his Geographia (150AD). The accompanying maps were worked out again by European cartographers at the end of the 15th century. The first (printed) separate maps of Scotland appeared in the 16th century. The city Edinburgh was founded in the 10th/11th century. It became the capital in the 15th century. Early settlements date back to pre-historic times and in the 6th century it was known as Din Eidyn. An (inset) map of the city was included in the town atlas of Hogenberg & Braun, published in 1572 onwards.
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Historical e-Atlas France

Historical e-Atlas France

France in 43 historical maps: 1375-2010 (140 pages). The name France refers to Land of the Franks. The name means “Land of the free People”. The name may also be derived from the word frankon (spear), one of the weapons used by its warriors. On earlier maps the Latin name Gallia (Land of the Celts) or Gaul (Land of Foreigners) was used; during the 17th century the name Francia came into use. In the oldest classical descriptions (e.g. Strabo, ca. 20BC) the name Celtica is used to identify the region covering present-day France. France was also described by Ptolemy in his Geographia (150AD). The accompanying maps were worked out again by European cartographers at the end of the 15th century. Its coastline is depicted more accurate on the Portolan charts of the late middle ages, when the Mediterranean region was a centre for navigation and trade. The first printed separate maps of France appeared in the early 16th century. The origin of the capital city Paris goes back to 52BC, when a settlement (in Gaul) was concurred by the Romans. They called it Lutetia. A map of the city was included in the first European town atlas, published by Hogenberg & Braun in 1572.
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Historical e-Atlas United Kingdom

Historical e-Atlas United Kingdom

United Kingdom in 48 historical maps: 1025-2010 (150 pages). The UK is a self-descriptive short-form name for “United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland”. * The name Great Britain or Larger Britain, from Mediaeval Latin Britannia Maior, was first recorded by Geoffrey of Monmouth, who used it to distinguish the island from Britannia Minor (Little Britain) or Brittany in modern France. The name Britain (or Latin name Britannia) most likely originates - via French or Welsh (Prydain) - from pretani, meaning the “painted ones”. It refers to the use of body-paint and tattoos by early inhabitants of the islands. It may also be derived from the Celtic goddess Brigid. The British Isles were already described by Ptolemy in his Geographia (150AD). The accompanying maps were worked out again by European cartographers at the end of the 15th century. The first (printed) separate maps appeared in the 16th century. *Before the independence of Ireland in 1916, the UK comprised present-day England (plus Wales), Scotland, Northern-Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. The term British Isles is still used to identify these 5 entities.
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Historical e-Atlas Spain

Historical e-Atlas Spain

Spain in 42 historical maps: 1339-2010 (130 pages) On ancient maps the Latin name Iberia is used to identify the Spanish peninsula (Spain and Portugal). It is derived from the Greek word Iberes, meaning “the Celtic people of Spain”. But it may also refer to the river Ebro in Spain. The name Spain (España) is derived from the Roman name Hispania. Most likely it refers to Spain lying at the end or western edge of the Mediterranean region. (In classical times this was the known world.) It may be evolved from the Iberian word Hispalis, meaning “city of the western world”. It may also be evolved from the Greek term Hesperia, reflecting the Greek perception of Italy as a “land of the setting sun” or “western land” and Spain, lying still further west, as Hesperia ultima. Spain (and Portugal) were already described by Ptolemy in his Geographia (150AD). The accompanying maps were worked out again by European cartographers at the end of the 15th century. The coastline was drawn in more detail on 14th century Portolan charts (nautical maps). The first separately printed maps appeared in the 16th century.
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Historical e-Atlas Portugal

Historical e-Atlas Portugal

Portugal in 29 historical maps: 1375-2010 (104 pages) On ancient maps the Latin name Iberia is used to identify the Spanish peninsula (Spain and Portugal). It is derived from the Greek word Iberes, meaning "the Celtic people of Spain". But it may also refer to the river Ebro in Spain. Most likely the name Portugal means "beautiful port". The first part refers to the Latin word Portus. The second part may be derived from the Greek word kallis. Spain and Portugal were already described by Ptolemy in his Geographia (150AD). The accompanying maps were worked out again by European cartographers at the end of the 15th century. The coastline was drawn in more detail on 14th century Portolan charts (nautical maps). The first separately printed map of Portugal appeared in the 16th century (about 1560).
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Historical e-Atlas Japan

Historical e-Atlas Japan

Japan in 39 historical maps: 1507-2010 (130 pages). The official name of Japan is Nippon (or Nihon) meaning the “Land of the Rising Sun”. This name comes from Imperial correspondence with the Chinese Sui Dynasty and refers to Japan’s eastward position relative to China. The old Malay word for Japan, Jepang (modern spelling Jepun), was borrowed from a Chinese language. On the first separately printed map of Japan (Teixeira/Ortelius, 1595) the Latinized name Iaponia appeared. Various other names for Japan were used on earlier maps. On some 16th century (world) maps, based on Ptolemy’s ideas, the name Zipangri was used. The famous large wall map of Waldseemuller (1507) is one of the first world maps on which the island of Japan is clearly depicted. It appears at the upper right corner of the map. The history of the city Tokyo goes back to a settlement and fortress called (J)edo in 1456. In 1868 the name was changed in Tokyo, which became the capital of the country. NOTE: Until the midst of the 19th century the island of Hokkaido was mostly only partly depicted - or even absent - on maps of Japan.
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Historical e-Atlas United States

Historical e-Atlas United States

United States in 43 historical maps: 1507-2010 (138 pages). The United States of America (USA) are named after the Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci. The name America was introduced by the German cartographer Martin Waldseemuller. The name appeared for the first time on his famous world map published in 1507. The printed wall map was lost for a long time; the only survived copy was found in Schloss Wolfegg, in southern Germany in 1901. The map, also called the “birth-certificate of America”, was purchased by the Library of Congress in 2003. The Eastern coastline of (Northern) America was drawn much more accurate on the world map of Ribero in 1527. The first separately printed map of the new continent (the Americas) was included in Sebastian Munster’s encyclopedia (1540 onwards). The first separate maps covering the area of present day United States appeared at the end of the 17th century. The name United States of America was introduced after their independence from the UK in 1776. Since 1895 Washington DC has been the geographical capital of the USA. In 1967 it also became the political capital.
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Historical e-Atlas Malta

Historical e-Atlas Malta

Malta in 32 historical maps: 1480-2014 (118 pages). The name Malta is either from Greek or Phoenician origin. The presence of the Greek dates back to 700BC when they called the island Melita, which refers to “(land of) honey”. The name was also used by the Romans during their domination of the island. The alternative Phoenician theory refers to the word Maleth , meaning “a haven”. The name Melita is used on the earliest maps, the name Malta on modern maps. On 17th century maps both names were often applied. The island already appears as a small (green) spot on regional maps of Ptolemy (c.150AD/c.1480). The first (printed) separate maps of Malta were published in the early 16th century. The city Valetta was founded in 1566 by Jean de la Valette, Grandmaster of the Maltese Knighthood. It became the capital in 1570. An inset map of the city was included in the first town atlas, published by Hogenberg & Braun in 1572.
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Historical e-Atlas Argentina & Chile

Historical e-Atlas Argentina & Chile

Argentina and Chile in 37 historical maps: 1502-2010 (120 pages). The name Argentina refers to the Río de la Plata (Latin: Argenteus), meaning “Silver River”. It was given by the explorer Sebastian Cabot in the 1520s after acquiring some silver trinkets from a local tribe (the Guaraní). The origin of the name Chile is uncertain. It may be derived from the Mapuche word Chili , meaning “where the land ends”. (The Mapuche are a group of indigenous inhabitants of south-central Chile and south-western Argentina, including parts of the region Patagonia.) The name Patagonia (Patagão), covering large parts of present-day Argentina and Chile, was introduced by the Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan (1519-1522 voyage). It means “Land of big feet” referring to the huge people he reported to have seen. The southernmost part of South-America was first drawn on the famous Cantino map (1502), followed by a more accurate map of Ribero in 1527. The first maps of Argentina and Chile resembling the modern maps nowadays did not appear until the midst of the 19th century. This was after their independence from Spain in 1810 (Chile) and 1816 (Argentina).
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