Historical e-Atlas Hungary

Historical e-Atlas Hungary

Hungary in 31 historical maps: 1493-2010 (108 pages) The name Hungary means “Alliance of the ten tribes”. Byzantine chronicles gave this name to the Hungarians; the chroniclers mistakenly assumed that the Hungarians had Turkish origins, based on their Turkish-nomadic customs and appearance, despite the Uralic language of the people. The Hungarian tribes later actually formed an alliance of the 7 Hungarian and 3 Khazarian tribes, but the name is from before then, and first applied to the original seven Hungarian tribes. The ethnonym Hunni, referring to the Huns, has influenced the Latin (and English) spelling. The first separately printed map of Hungary (and surroundings) appeared in 1528. More detailed maps were included in the atlases of Ortelius and Mercator at the end of the 16th century.
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Historical e-Atlas Spain

Historical e-Atlas Spain

Spain in 42 historical maps: 1339-2010 (130 pages) On ancient maps the Latin name Iberia is used to identify the Spanish peninsula (Spain and Portugal). It is derived from the Greek word Iberes, meaning “the Celtic people of Spain”. But it may also refer to the river Ebro in Spain. The name Spain (España) is derived from the Roman name Hispania. Most likely it refers to Spain lying at the end or western edge of the Mediterranean region. (In classical times this was the known world.) It may be evolved from the Iberian word Hispalis, meaning “city of the western world”. It may also be evolved from the Greek term Hesperia, reflecting the Greek perception of Italy as a “land of the setting sun” or “western land” and Spain, lying still further west, as Hesperia ultima. Spain (and Portugal) were already described by Ptolemy in his Geographia (150AD). The accompanying maps were worked out again by European cartographers at the end of the 15th century. The coastline was drawn in more detail on 14th century Portolan charts (nautical maps). The first separately printed maps appeared in the 16th century.
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Historical e-Atlas Portugal

Historical e-Atlas Portugal

Portugal in 29 historical maps: 1375-2010 (104 pages) On ancient maps the Latin name Iberia is used to identify the Spanish peninsula (Spain and Portugal). It is derived from the Greek word Iberes, meaning "the Celtic people of Spain". But it may also refer to the river Ebro in Spain. Most likely the name Portugal means "beautiful port". The first part refers to the Latin word Portus. The second part may be derived from the Greek word kallis. Spain and Portugal were already described by Ptolemy in his Geographia (150AD). The accompanying maps were worked out again by European cartographers at the end of the 15th century. The coastline was drawn in more detail on 14th century Portolan charts (nautical maps). The first separately printed map of Portugal appeared in the 16th century (about 1560).
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Historical e-Atlas New Zealand

Historical e-Atlas New Zealand

New Zealand in 24 historical maps: 1642-2010 (94 pages). New Zealand is named after the province of Zeeland in the Netherlands, which means “sea land”, referring to the large number of islands it contains. Abel Tasman, the first European explorer reaching the country in 1642, referred to New Zealand as Staten Landt. But later Dutch cartographers used Zeelandia Nova (Latin), followed by Nieuw-Zeeland in Dutch. Aotearoa has become the most common name for the country in the indigenous Maori language, meaning “land of the long white cloud”. After Tasman's discovery of NZ, parts of its Western coastline appeared for the first time on the famous world (wall) map of the Blaeu family in 1648. It was assumed that the North- and South Island were connected. It took more than 100 years until the whole coastline was mapped, after Captain Cook had circumnavigated the country.
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Historical e-Atlas Argentina & Chile

Historical e-Atlas Argentina & Chile

Argentina and Chile in 37 historical maps: 1502-2010 (120 pages). The name Argentina refers to the Río de la Plata (Latin: Argenteus), meaning “Silver River”. It was given by the explorer Sebastian Cabot in the 1520s after acquiring some silver trinkets from a local tribe (the Guaraní). The origin of the name Chile is uncertain. It may be derived from the Mapuche word Chili , meaning “where the land ends”. (The Mapuche are a group of indigenous inhabitants of south-central Chile and south-western Argentina, including parts of the region Patagonia.) The name Patagonia (Patagão), covering large parts of present-day Argentina and Chile, was introduced by the Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan (1519-1522 voyage). It means “Land of big feet” referring to the huge people he reported to have seen. The southernmost part of South-America was first drawn on the famous Cantino map (1502), followed by a more accurate map of Ribero in 1527. The first maps of Argentina and Chile resembling the modern maps nowadays did not appear until the midst of the 19th century. This was after their independence from Spain in 1810 (Chile) and 1816 (Argentina).
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Historical e-Atlas Netherlands & Belgium

Historical e-Atlas Netherlands & Belgium

Netherlands and Belgium in 35 historical maps: 1480-2010 (116 pages). The general name Low Countries is often used for the region covering both The Netherlands and Belgium. The name Netherlands (Dutch: Nederland ) is used for the northern country. It means “low lying lands”. The name Holland (Latin: Hollandia), covering the provinces Noord- and Zuid-Holland, is sometimes used to identify the whole country. It is probably derived from the Germanic word holt-land (“wooded land”) or it may refer to “hollow” or “marsh land”. The name Belgium, for the southern country, came into use after their independence from the United Netherlands in 1830. The name refers to “Land of the Belgae”, a Celtic tribe in he Roman province of Gallia Belgica (Belgic Gaul). The name’s origin is uncertain, but it may be derived from the Proto-Indo-European word bhelgh-, meaning “to bulge” or “to swell”. An alternative theory suggests that it means “bright”. On early maps, the name for the province of Flanders (Latin: Flandria) was also used to identify the whole country. The first printed separate maps of the Low Countries appeared in the midst of the 16th century. In the following period the Latin name Germania Inferior was often used to identify this region, e.g. in Ortelius famous world atlas (1570).
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Historical e-Atlas England

Historical e-Atlas England

England in 32 historical maps: 1480-2010 (110 pages). In medieval times the name England (or Latin Anglia) was often used to identify the entire island of Great Britain. It means "Land of the Angles" and refers to the Celtic people living on the island prior to the Anglo-Saxon conquest. On later maps Anglia was limited to the southern part of the Island, and Scotia (Scotland) identified the Northern part. England was already described by Ptolemy in his Geographia (150AD). The accompanying maps were worked out again by European cartographers at the end of the 15th century. The first (printed) separate maps appeared at the end of the 16th century.
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Historical e-Atlas Malta

Historical e-Atlas Malta

Malta in 30 historical maps: 1480-2014 (106 pages). The name Malta is either from Greek or Phoenician origin. The presence of the Greek dates back to 700BC when they called the island Melita, which refers to "(land of) honey". The name was also used by the Romans during their domination of the island. The alternative Phoenician theory refers to the word Maleth, meaning "a haven". The name Melita is used on the earliest maps, the name Malta on modern maps. On 17th century maps both names were often applied. The island already appears as a small (green) spot on regional maps of Ptolemy (c.150AD/c.1480). The first (printed) separate maps of Malta were published in the early 16th century.
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Historical e-Atlas Denmark

Historical e-Atlas Denmark

Denmark in 32 historical maps: 1375-2010 (110 pages). The name Denmark probably means “Flat Borderlands”. Most likely it is derived from the Proto-Indo-European word dhen (meaning “low” or “flat”) and the Old Norse words merki (“boundary”) or mork (“borderland”). Although out of shape, the country is clearly visible on the first maps based on Ptolemy’s descriptions (c.1480). It looks like an appendix North of Germany. On the famous overview map of Scandinavia, made by Olaus Magnus (1539), the border of Denmark is depicted more accurately. One of the first separate maps was included in Sebastian Munster’s encyclopaedia (1544). The first separately printed (hand-coloured) map, based on the work of the Danish Cartographer Marcus Jordan (1552), was published by Ortelius in 1570.
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Historical e-Atlas Wales

Historical e-Atlas Wales

Wales in 31 historical maps: 1150-2010 (108 pages). The name Wales (and Welsh) derives from the Germanic root Walh (plural Walha). The name refers to the Celtic tribes known to the Romans as Volcae, being used to identify all Celtic inhabitants of the Roman Empire. The Welsh name for Wales is Cymry. The word is descended from the Brythonic word combrogi, meaning "fellow-countrymen". The Latinised form is Cambria. It has survived in various geographical names; e.g. the Cambrian Mountains, which cover much of Wales. (They also gave their name to the Cambrian geological period.) The name Cambria was also used on the earliest printed maps of Wales, at the end of the 16th century. On later maps it would become Wallia (Latin) and Wales (modern English).
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Historical e-Atlas China

Historical e-Atlas China

China in 39 historical maps: 1137-2010 (124 pages). The most commonly theory suggests that the name China refers to the Qin dynasty, which ruled China from 221 till 206 BC. The name China was adopted by Martin Martini and other 17th century (European) cartographers. On earlier maps the name Cathay, based on Marco Polo’s Italian name Catai, was used to identify the northern part of present-day China. The (eastern) coastline of China was not yet depicted on early European (world) maps based on Ptolemy’s descriptions. The large wall maps of Cresques (1375) and Fra Mauro (1450) were the first European world maps showing the extent of China to the east. On the other hand, a few centuries earlier, Chinese cartographers had already produced some remarkably accurate maps - at the time - of China and surroundings. The first separate maps of China, printed by Europeans, appeared in the 16th century.
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Historical e-Atlas India

Historical e-Atlas India

India in 38 historical maps: 1467-2010 (122 pages). The name India is referring to the Indus river (or Sindhu) and has been in use in Greek since Herodotus (4th century BC). An alternative name is Hindustan. In the 19th century, the term as was only used to identify the northern part of present-day India. India was already described by Ptolemy in about 150AD. The accompanying maps were worked out at the end of the 15th century by European cartographers. The size and shape are not very accurate on these maps. The island of present-day Sri Lanka is relatively large and positioned at the south-west side. From 1502 onwards (Cantino map and later) India is finally depicted by its characteristic V-shape, due to new chartings by Portuguese explorers.
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Historical e-Atlas Australia

Historical e-Atlas Australia

Australia in 34 historical maps: 1547-2010 (114 pages). The name Australia is adapted from the Latin name Terra Australis Incognita, meaning the "Unknown Southern Land". The name was used on 16th century world maps, e.g. the ones of Mercator and Ortelius, to identify a large imaginary landmass stretching around the south pole. The present day country and continent became officially known as Australia in 1824, after the British explorer Matthew Flinders had circumnavigated the island 20 years earlier and introduced the name in his charts and publications. Before this, the Latin name Hollandia Nova (New Holland) was mostly used to identify present day Australia. The name was introduced by Dutch explorers who had discovered the West coast in the early 17th century. It appeared - for the first time - on the large world map of the Blaeu firm in 1648, and later in their printed Atlas Maior from 1662 onwards.
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Historical e-Atlas Brazil

Historical e-Atlas Brazil

Brazil in 40 historical maps: 1502-2010 (126 pages). The name Brazil or Terra do Brasil was introduced by Portuguese explorers. It is derived from pau-brasil, meaning "red-wood". The word refers to a kind of timber which can be found scattered across the country. The similar Latin word brasa also refers to red-hot embers. The eastern coastline of Brazil - and (South) America in general - appeared for the first time on the world map of Alberto Cantino in 1502 and earlier on the manuscript map of Juan de la Cosa in 1500. The large world map of Martin Waldseemuller in 1507 was the first printed map that incorporated the new discovered land. The name America appeared on the map identifying the new discovered land. After realizing that Columbus - and not Amerigo Vespucci - had discovered the new continent, Waldseemuller changed the name in Terra Incognita; on his later maps (e.g. in his atlas published in 1513).
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Historical e-Atlas Japan

Historical e-Atlas Japan

Japan in 37 historical maps: 1507-2010 (120 pages). The official name of Japan is Nippon (or Nihon) meaning the "Land of the Rising Sun". This name comes from Imperial correspondence with the Chinese Sui Dynasty and refers to Japan's eastward position relative to China. The old Malay word for Japan, Jepang (modern spelling Jepun), was borrowed from a Chinese language. On the first separately printed map of Japan (Teixeira/Ortelius, 1595) the Latinized name Iaponia appeared. Various other names for Japan were used on earlier maps. On some 16th century (world) maps, based on Ptolemy’s ideas, the name Zipangri was used. The famous large wall map of Waldseemuller (1507) is one of the first world maps on which the island of Japan is clearly depicted. It appears at the upper right corner of the map. NOTE: Until the midst of the 19th century the island of Hokkaido was mostly only partly depicted - or even absent - on maps of Japan.
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Historical e-Atlas Russia

Historical e-Atlas Russia

Russia in 42 historical maps: 1375-2010 (130 pages). The name Russia, or Byzantine Greek Ro(s)sia, means "Land of the Rus" (or Ros). Most likely it is derived from the Old Norse word for "rower" (or seafarer). Its first usage dates back to the early middle ages. On earlier maps the (Latin) names Moscovia and Tartaria were used. Moscovia identifies the western (European) part and Tartaria the eastern or Asiatic part. On the Mappa Mundia of Cresques (1375) and Fra Mauro (1450) the name Rossia is used. The modern name Russia came into use in the 16th century. The first separately printed maps of Russia appeared in the 16th century. Most of the maps were focused on the European part (Moscovia). During the 17th century the coverage was extended to the east.
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Historical e-Atlas Mexico

Historical e-Atlas Mexico

Mexico in 34 historical maps: 1527-2010 (114 pages). The origin of the name Mexico (Mexihca) is uncertain. Most likely it means "navel of the moon", based on Nahuatl metztli (moon) and xictli (navel).* It may also be derived from Mexihco, the name of the ancient Aztec capital, given by the Spanish colonists. At the end of the 16th century and early 17th century the name Mexico was also used on maps to identify large parts of present day United States. The Latin name Nova Hispania (New Spain) was used for a smaller region centred around the present-day capital Mexico City. On the world map of Ribero (1527) the eastern coastline of present-day Mexico is depicted remarkably accurate. On the atlas maps made by the Dieppe school (1547) the western coastline is also shown. One of the first separately engraved maps of Mexico was made by Italian cartographers in 1561. Numerous copies of other European cartographers would follow. *Nahuatl is a language spoken by the native inhabitants of Mexico
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Historical e-Atlas Egypt

Historical e-Atlas Egypt

Egypt in 34 historical maps: 1480-2010 (114 pages). According to the classical scholar Strabo (20BC) the name Egypt is derived from the Greek Aigaíou Hyptíos, which means the “(Land) below the Aegean (sea)". The first separate map of the region was designed by Ptolemy (150AD). The map was worked out again by European cartographers at the end of the 15th century. The first separately printed maps of Egypt appeared in the (early) 16th century. Mostly, only the northern part (the Nile delta) of present-day Egypt was depicted. In the 17th century the coverage was extended to the south.
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Historical e-Atlas Iceland

Historical e-Atlas Iceland

Iceland in 32 historical maps: 1528-2010 (110 pages). Iceland means "Land of Ice". The Old Norse name is Ísland. On early maps the Latin name Islandia is mostly used. Iceland is clearly depicted on the famous map of Scandinavia (1539) made by Olaus Magnus. The first separately printed map of the country appeared a few years later. The first full colour map was published by Ortelius in 1590. In the course of history numerous native cartographers turned up and produced a string of great maps of the country. E.g. Gudbrandur Thorlaksson (c.1590), Thordur Thorlaksson (1668), Eiriksson (1780), Gunnlaugsson (1849) and Thoroddsen (1900).
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Historical e-Atlas Italy

Historical e-Atlas Italy

Italy in 41 historical maps: 1250-2010 (128 pages). The name Italy (Latin Italia) can be traced back to ancient times for the peninsula, though it was initially designated for the region of the lower part of Southern Italy by Greek settlers. Most likely it is derived from the ancient word Viteliu, meaning "land of young cattle". Italy had been a rich agricultural country since ancient times. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire and the Lombard invasions, Italia gradually became the collective name for various sovereign entities present on the peninsula. Italy was already described by Ptolemy in his Geographia (150AD). The accompanying maps were worked out again by European cartographers at the end of the 15th century. It is also depicted on the Portolan charts during the late middle ages, when the Mediterranean was a centre for navigation and trade. The first printed separate maps of Italy appeared in the early 16th century.
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Historical e-Atlas Nigeria

Historical e-Atlas Nigeria

Nigeria in 33 historical maps: 1490-2010 (112 pages). Nigeria is named after the river Niger that flows through the western part of the country, ending in the Atlantic ocean. It means "flowing water" and may be derived from the native word Ni Gir or N'eghirren (Tuareg). The Cantino map (1502) was the first world map on which the coastline of this western part of Africa was depicted relatively accurate. Due to lack of information the inland was often filled with fictitious elements. On 17th century and later maps (e.g. Blaeu) the name of neighbouring country Benin was used to identify large parts of present-day Nigeria. During the 18th century the African maps looked rather empty again (e.g. Anville), because cartographers applied a more scientific approach and showed only features that were actually verified. The first separately printed (atlas) maps of Nigeria did not appear until their independence from the UK in 1960.
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