* build it into the very start of their teaching;
* know their pupils' strengths and development needs;
* give pupils good feedback about their learning and progress during classwork;
* make good use of records, profiles and folders of work to record pupils' progress and attainment;
* use tests to confirm their judgements and to map out pupils' next steps in learning.
Assessment is weak in schools where:
* it is divorced from teaching;
* there are inconsistencies among teachers, including recording and reporting;
* teachers fail to set out clear learning objectives and ways of assessing pupils' progress towards them;
* there is no constructive feedback to pupils about their learning;
* no clear procedures exist for assessment outwith English and maths;
* records and folders contain haphazard samples of work;
* assessment evidence is not collated into clear summaries linked to 5-14 attainment outcomes;
* teachers make little use of assessment evidence to plan next learning steps;
* national testing is only partly in place, particularly writing;
* tests are used inappropriately to measure attainment rather than to confirm teachers' judgements.