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Research notes

Many excluded pupils have a parent who has been seriously ill or have suffered early separation from their mothers, new research suggests.

Pupils with poor cognitive and literacy skills and low self-esteem are also at greater risk of exclusion, judging by a 10-school study by educational psychologist Sue Rendall.

She concludes that schools which exclude a high number of pupils are likely t have a more negative ethos than those that rarely use this sanction.

High-exclusion schools tend to have poor teacher-pupil relationships, low pupil and teacher morale, few extra-curricular activities and inadequate information for parents, she says.

"Factors relating to School Exclusion: A Systemic Approach", by Sue Rendall, The Tavistock Centre, 120 Belsize Lane, London NW3.

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