The research, undertaken by the University of the West of England, also indicates that the Government has not provided enough resources to make teaching courses effective.
While 44 per cent of secondary co-ordinators thought the balance of responsibilities between schools and higher education institutes was about right, only 16 per cent of their primary colleagues thought so.
The HE institutes thought the new system made it more difficult to place students in secondary schools.
More than half of secondary schools said they did not have enough money to do the job properly and felt they did not have enough time during the day to do justice to the trainees.
School staff said they benefited professionally from involvement in the training schemes, but thought there was a disadvantage because they took time away from teaching pupils.
The study, which included 110 secondary and 56 primary schools, also found that only a third of schools decided to join the scheme after consultation with all the staff.
Doug McAvoy, NUT general secretary, said: "Significant benefits can accrue to student teachers from these partnerships. They are also viewed very positively by teachers in partner schools.
"Sadly the commitment of those teachers and the potential benefits to student teachers are threatened by Government under-resourcing."