The aim of the exchange, which has been running since 2004, is to give the participants a taste of foreign cultures that would be difficult to convey in conventional lessons.
A week of "traditionally British" activities organised for the guests included a roast dinner, a visit to an amusement park, bowling, karaoke and a trip to the countryside.
Paul Friend, from charity Sheffield Futures, said: "The idea is to provide non-formal learning that allows them to experience different cultures and languages that they wouldn't necessarily get through the normal school curriculum.
"Saying that people in other countries speak different languages might have little meaning, but taking them to those countries lets them see, hear and experience the differences for themselves."
The visit, funded by the European Youth Programme, included a civic reception with the Mayor of Sheffield.
Georgos, a pupil from Greece, said: "I love it here, especially the countryside, which is so different to Athens."