1800 - 1876;1000 years of education;Millennium Edition

31st December 1999 at 00:00
1803 Scottish Education Act lays down a minimum annual salary for teachers of pound;16 3s 4d, maximum pound;22 4s 5d - and says there should be no increase for 25 years.

1808 The Royal Lancasterian Society founded (in 1814 it became the British and Foreign School Society).

1811 National Society for Promoting the Education of the Poor in the Principles of the Established Church (National Society) founded.

1823 Foundation of the London Mechanics Institute 1833 pound;20,000 grant for building elementary schools given by the government to be allocated between the National Society and the British and Foreign School Society. First government subsidy for education of poor.

1836 London University (left) established. David Stow sets up teacher-training college in Glasgow.

1839 Formation of the Committee of the Privy Council on Education. James Kay-Shuttleworth appointed as first secretary.

1840 Appointment of first inspectors for elementary schooling, John Allen (National Schools) and Hugh Tremenheere (British Schools).

1846 Scheme of apprenticeship adopted for pupil teachers.

1847 Queen Victoria grants a royal charter to establish the Educational Institute of Scotland. Report of the Commissioners into the State of Education in Wales. Still remembered in Wales as Brad y Llyfrau Gleision, the Treason of the Blue Books, because of its condemnation of all things Welsh.

1850 Opening of the North London Collegiate School for girls by Frances Buss.

1852 Reports of the Royal Commissions on the universities of Oxford and Cambridge recommend reforms, including wider courses of study for students.

1854 Hard Times (right), by Charles Dickens, satirises "gradgrindian" education, meaningless mastery of factual information.

1861 Newcastle Report on elementary schooling provides first thorough review of education in England.

1862 Introduction of the Revised Code by Robert Lowe - stipulates that elementary schools should be paid according to their results.

1864 Clarendon Report on nine "great" public schools supports emphasis on the Classics but saysboys should also be taught maths, one modern language, some natural science and either drawing or music.

1868 Taunton Report criticises the state of education for girls.

1870 Aberystwyth University College opened.

Forster Education Act introduces directly-elected school boards and allows schools to be financed out of local rates. An equivalent Act for Scotland followed two years later.

1876 Sandon's Education Act establishes school attendance committees in districts where there are no school boards.

1880 Elementary education made compulsory - up to the age of 10. At 10 a child could obtain an educational certificate entitling him to leave, but if his attendance had been poor he had to stay on until 13.

Employers of 10 to 13-year-olds who did not have a certificate became liable to a penalty.

1888 Scots pupils sit first Highers as basis for entry to universities.

The profession's Royal Commission on elementary education (Cross) report calls for end to payment by results.

1889 County councils empowered to levy a penny rate for technical education.

The Welsh Intermediate Education Act results in a network of intermediate or secondary schools across the principality.

1891 Fees in elementary education finally abolished by government.

1893 The University of Wales receives its Charter.

1895 Royal Commission on secondary education (Bryce) reports. Recommends that a central authority should be set up under a Minister of Education.

1897 Education Act allocates extra finance to voluntary schools (pound;615,000) and board schools (pound;514,000). However, the Act fails to clear up confusion as toexactly who should distribute thisfunding.

1899 Board of Education established.

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