By early secondary school the lack of interest becomes a cycle of disruptive, self-destructive behaviour that leads to high truancy and suspension. Four out of five suspended students are male.
The report argues for intervention at the first year of secondary schooling, around age 12. Mr Jeremy Ludowyke, the report's author, believes the heart of the problem is a generation of young men with anachronistic ideas about masculinity. He said: "Many boys restrict their choice of subjects and careers to antiquated patterns."