. The toolkit is designed to "teach" creativity to dance students, but the principles can be applied across many subjects.
One of the simplest ideas to come out of Mind and Movement is that to be creative means recognising and changing habits. "Creativity is all about breaking habits of mind and breaking habits of interpretation," Barnard says. Our brains process so much information every second of the day that we develop automatic responses, short cuts, often influenced by the norms and standards set around us. Barnard calls this canonical thinking and it is the enemy of creativity.
"If I ask you to close your eyes and construct a mental image of a staircase, it's very likely that you imagine the stairs from the bottom, looking up," Barnard says. It is the same for a bridge. The odds are that you picture a curved bridge, from the side, with water running underneath. Try it with your class.
Perspective is one of 12 principles that Barnard and McGregor identified to develop creative ideas and it is an easy one to apply across subjects: painting a still life from the point of view of an aphid on a flower, for example; approaching a practical media task by actively putting yourself inside or outside of a story; in creative writing, considering not just first-person or third-person perspective but how a narrative might be told by the hero, the villain or the family pet.
Another easy-to-apply finding from Barnard's work is the value of articulating your own process. Finding the language to talk about their work allowed the dancers in the study to open up new possibilities. Try translating this into a classroom discussion where students not only present what they have done but also describe what they were thinking while they were working and why they made certain choices. This will help them to identify their own habits and take inspiration from different ways of thinking.
Take a break, have a dance
What else could you take from the lab into the classroom? Recognising the necessity of the incubation stage is a good start - for example, by allowing students a breather when they are stuck on a task.
"When you're banging your head against the wall, that's when you have to go away and allow the process to take place," says Peacock, who recommends moving to a different kind of cognition. Switching from a visual-spatial activity to a manual activity, for instance, or from a verbal task to one that involves building or painting.
One activity that could make for a fun mid-lesson break comes from an experiment by psychologist Dr Peter Lovatt. In research measuring divergent thinking - that is, the ability to come up with multiple responses to a question, a standard model of creativity - subjects scored higher after they had taken part in a short dance session, as if improvising with their bodies opened up different avenues in their minds.
This may mean shedding a few inhibitions, but that is key to creativity, too. Limb's research involves putting musicians in fMRI scanners and watching their brains light up. In an experiment in which jazz musicians were asked to improvise on the keyboard while Limb followed their brain activity, the area of the brain associated with self-expression was highly active - nothing surprising there. But there was a notable drop in activity in the area associated with self-monitoring, judging and correcting. Expert creatives are able to shut off their inhibitions in order to take unconventional leaps. They can play unselfconsciously.
Whether in the arts, science or maths, the sense of play is crucial to creativity. "In regards to education, it doesn't so much seem to be a question of nurturing that as not crushing it," Peacock says. "Children are very good at that naturally. But by the time you get to university level, people have often lost the knack."
So creativity, it seems, is both definable and teachable. But to be able to do both, teachers may have to shed the "front" that many construct - the role they play as teacher - while giving students scope to be freer in what they are doing. Even, according to the experts, allowing students to fail.
"It's a matter of not sidelining that, not saying, `That's silly, that's not proper work'," Peacock says. "There's the problem that creative activity is not so goal-directed; it is speculative. You might spend a lot of time exploring something and find out that it doesn't answer the first question you asked, and you could think of that as wasted time. But you have to create a culture where you can do things that might not succeed, that might not be great but you value them anyway."
Collaborating with artists to develop fresh approaches to traditional subject areas.
The seriousness of play: this Teachers TV video outlines the case for creativity in schools.
"Your brain on improv", a TED talk by Dr Charles Limb.
Lewis, C and Lovatt, P J (2013) "Breaking away from set patterns of thinking: improvisation and divergent thinking", Thinking Skills and Creativity, 9: 46-58.
Limb, C J and Braun, A R (2008) "Neural substrates of spontaneous musical performance: an fMRI study of jazz improvisation", PLoS ONE, 32.