An early pioneer was American James Mason who, in 1865, invented the coffee percolator - just too late for the combatants in the American Civil War.
In 1908, German housewife Melitta Bentz patented her coffee filter and coffee paper, which she had devised from her son's school blotter. The Melitta Bentz company went on to invent the filter bag in 1937 and vacuum-packing in 1962.
In 1933, Dr Ernest Illy invented the first automatic espresso machine and in 1946, Achilles Gaggia devised a high-pressure espresso machine by using a spring-powered lever system. The first pump-driven espresso machine was produced in 1960 by the Faema company.
In 1901, just-add-hot-water ("instant") coffee was invented by Japanese American chemist Satori Kato, of Chicago. In 1906, English chemist George Constant Washington, invented the first mass-produced instant coffee, called "Red E Coffee". In 1938, Nescafe or freeze-dried coffee was invented.