Difficulties with recalled evidence and essay-writing undermined the efforts of Standard grade candidates.
The "biggest single problem" at General level was the "inability of many candidates to supply recalled evidence", without which full marks cannot be gained. Only a minority offered clear recalled evidence.
At Credit level, "many candidates struggled with the demands of the eight-mark short essay".
Some candidates appeared unaware of the meaning of "Allied" or "technology", while others confused "home front" with "Western front" or "front line".
Many essays also suffered from unclear and simplistic introductions.
Markers were impressed with the "commendable effort" of most candidates at Foundation level, where there was an increase in the amount of recalled evidence presented.
Teachers were reminded that all areas of the syllabus must be learned by candidates, advising that more attention should be paid to rural housing, the role of trade unions, the League of Nations and the United Nations, the Republican Party, the Bolsheviks (for example, Leon Trotsky, pictured) and the Spartacists.
The "vast majority" of candidates at Intermediate 1 and 2 were entered at the correct level.