Children as young as 11 are worried about university tuition fees, new research has found.
The National Foundation for Educational Research has been tracking the impact of tuition fee rises on secondary school pupils' attitudes towards gaining qualifications.
The latest study examines how pupils' views altered after the announcement in November 2010 that universities in England could charge up to #163;9,000 a year in fees.
Researcher Tom Benton found that secondary school pupils are now more likely to agree that they can be successful without qualifications.
Pupils from affluent backgrounds are also affected by the rise in fees, with the numbers applying to university falling.
The study compared the attitudes of 28,000 pupils before the rise in tuition fees was announced with the attitudes of 16,500 pupils afterwards.
Percentage of pupils who agree or strongly agree that 'I think I could be successful without qualifications'
Spring 2010 - 18%
Summer 2010 - 18%
Spring 2011 - 26%
Summer 2011 - 27%
Percentage of pupils who think it is very important to stay out of debt
Spring 2010 - 76%
Summer 2010 - 77%
Spring 2011 - 80%
Summer 2011 - 77%.