Primaries and special schools have taken to enterprise in education with a cross-curricular enthusiasm that is much less evident in secondaries.
A Scottish Executive-backed study confirms positive effects on teachers'
classroom approaches, improved attitudes among pupils and a better ethos - even if making, buying and selling activities continue to dominate.
But secondaries are lagging behind because of curriculum constraints and the view that teachers should focus on exam attainment in specific subjects. Commitment varies from department to department. Fourteen authorities blamed teachers' attitudes for lack of progress.
Activities are also suffering due to staff shortages. Nine authorities - almost one in three - had problems prising teachers out of school to fill posts as enterprise or cluster co-ordinators.
Some smaller authorities complained about the cost of funding vocational education.
Primaries took on the message about the "can do" attitude and saw enterprise as involving children and giving them a stronger say in their learning.
National Evaluation of Determined to Succeed, Phase 1 is on the Scottish Executive website.