Many excluded pupils have a parent who has been seriously ill or have suffered early separation from their mothers, new research suggests.
Pupils with poor cognitive and literacy skills and low self-esteem are also at greater risk of exclusion, judging by a 10-school study by educational psychologist Sue Rendall.
She concludes that schools which exclude a high number of pupils are likely t have a more negative ethos than those that rarely use this sanction.
High-exclusion schools tend to have poor teacher-pupil relationships, low pupil and teacher morale, few extra-curricular activities and inadequate information for parents, she says.
"Factors relating to School Exclusion: A Systemic Approach", by Sue Rendall, The Tavistock Centre, 120 Belsize Lane, London NW3.