Five years on from the launch of Curriculum for Excellence (CfE), little progress has been made in assessing pupils' key "four capacities", which are supposed to drive the flagship reform, a study has said.
Educational psychologists found no guidance issued to schools on assessment, but five said they were "developing possible resources".
This jeopardised the CfE's aims, including building confidence and cultivating personal responsibility, it said.
Most councils said they were waiting for further guidance from the Scottish Government. es.