A mixed picture emerges about the training staff receive. Two-thirds of employers had funded or arranged training in the 12 months prior to the survey, with four out of 10 employees having had off-the-job training.
But training appears to be reserved for workers who already have advantages: they tend to be those in more responsible jobs, and have better skills and better qualifications. Training is more available in larger workplaces.
Training opportunities are also linked to occupation: the best records are in public administration, education, health, finance, transport and communications.
A third of employers who did not provide training said it was not necessary in their business and a similar number said staff were already "fully proficient".