* Assessment for learningTechniques to identify pupils' learning needs and to help them get more from teachers' feedback. Approaches already adopted include putting constructive comments on pupils' work instead of marks.
* Effective teaching and learning strategiesThe Government says this means that teachers should use a range of teaching styles, drawing on their skills and specialist subject knowledge. It can involve tailoring lessons to the different ways pupils learn, for example, by moving around the class.
* Curriculum entitlement and choiceOffering as wide a choice of subjects and flexible learning routes, as possible. So, for example, secondary pupils can do vocational as well as academic courses. This aspect is expected to be enhanced by next week's Tomlinson report on 14 to 19 education.
* School organisationCovers all aspects of the way schools are run, from the structure of the timetable to the design of new buildings, use of computers, staff and pupils' views. Lynn Grove high in Norfolk which runs a "virtual school" allowing pupils to learn online outside normal hours is cited as a good example.
* Strong partnership beyond the school The Government suggests the key partnership should be between teachers and parents, a relationship it believes will be improved by the growth of extended schools. Headteachers' associations say it should be about creating networks between schools at a local and national level to share ideas.