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What tomorrow's citizens should have been taught at school

The following four sections contain what the citizenship group is likely to recommend that schools should teach every child from five to 16, "in order to prepare pupils for citizenship in adult life". "Knowledge and understanding" is put last, to emphasise that these should follow on from concepts, values and skills, and not drive the curriculum.

Schools are not expected to cover all of this at every stage, and certainly not all of it in formal "citizenship time". Children are expected to learn much of it in other subjects and areas of school life.

But all pupils, including those with special needs, should have covered everything by age 16.

Key concepts

* Democracy and autocracy

* Co-operation and conflict

* Equality and diversity

* Fairness, justice, the rule of law

* Freedom and order

* Individual and community

* Power and authority

* Rights and responsibilities

Values and dispositions

* Concern for the common good

* Belief in human dignity and equality

* A disposition to work with andfor others with sympathetic understanding

* Proclivity to act responsibly - that is care for others and oneself;

premeditation and calculation about the effect actions are likely to have

on others; and acceptance of responsibility for unforeseen or unfortunate


* Practice of tolerance

* Judging and acting by a moral code

* Courage to defend a point of view

* Willingness to be open to the possibility of changing one's attitudes and

values in the light of evidence

* Individual initiative and effort

* Civility and respect for the law

* Determination to act justly

* Commitment to equal opportunities and gender equality

* Belief in active citi* enship

* Commitment to voluntary service

* Concern for human rights

* Protection of the environment

Skills and aptitudes

* Make a reasoned argument both verbally and in writing

* Co-operate and work effectively with others

* Consider and appreciate the experience and perspective of others

* Tolerate other viewpoints

* Develop problem-solving approach

* Use modern media and technology critically to gather information

* Adopt a critical approach to evidence

* Look for fresh evidence

* Recognise forms of manipulation and persuasion

* Identify, respond to and influence social, moral and political situations

Knowledge and understanding

* Topical and contemporary issues and events at local, national, European

and international level

* The nature of democratic communities, including how they function and


* The interdependence of individuals and local and voluntary communities

* The nature of diversity, dissent and social conflict

* Legal and moral rights and responsibilities of individuals and


* The nature of social, moral and political challenges faced by

individuals and communities

* Britain's political and legal systems at local, national, European and

international level

* The nature of political and voluntary action in communities

* The rights and responsibilities of citi* ens as consumers, employees,

employers and family and community members

* The economic system as it relates to individuals and communities

* Human rights issues

* Sustainable development and environmental issues

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