Grammar schools which want to change their admissions to become more inclusive have two options.
They can change their policy on the marks needed in their 11-plus entrance tests for certain groups of pupils – possibly putting a certain number of places aside.
Or they can change the oversubscription criteria used to decide between pupils who pass the test. These could prioritise location, siblings, religious faiths or children eligible for free school meals (FSMs) or receiving pupil-premium funding.
A growing number of grammars now put poorer children nearer the top of their criteria, the Tes analysis shows. But children still have to pass the test.
And in some schools, poorer pupils are only prioritised after siblings or children living nearby – or they are considered only when there is a tie-breaker for the last place in the school.
Other schools prioritise disadvantaged children by lowering the score needed to pass the 11-plus test for a set number of disadvantaged pupils.
Some grammar schools use a quota. This will ensure a fixed percentage of places are reserved, but it may still have a limited effect on how representative a school is.
From September 2018, the highly selective Judd School in Tonbridge, Kent, will set aside up to five places, out of 135, for FSM pupils who pass the test and live in the school’s inner area. That amounts to less than 4 per cent, compared with around 11 per cent of secondary students claiming FSM across Kent. But it is an improvement on the current 1 per cent of pupils with FSM at the school.