Li Feng was sentenced to death on Tuesday last week by the Jilin Province High Court and executed the same day, said Guo Chunyu of the court's information office.
Mr Li worked in the city of Tonghua, the Xinhua News Agency said. All of his victims were under the age of 14.
He began molesting students in August 1998 shortly after he became a teacher at the school. His activities were finally exposed after a student rebuffed his advances last August.
Mr Li's father, a local legislator, was sentenced earlier to two years in jail for helping his son avoid arrest, Mr Guo said.
Parents of 13 students who were assaulted by Mr Li are suing the school for negligence, demanding 130,000 yuan (pound;10,000) in compensation. (AP)