Physics KS4, KS5 Introduction to CIRCULAR MOTION notes and powerpoint

2 Resources
The powerpoint shows an object moving in a circle. Its aim is to explain the difficult concept of how an object moving in a circle at constant speed is accelerating. It explains this in terms of changing velocity and in terms of their being a resultant force. It emphasizes that the object is not in equilibrium and there is no outwards force. It shows how an object flies off along the tangent when the centripetal force ceases. The first file has student notes which explain why an object moving in a circle at constant speed is accelerating towards the centre of the circle. It goes step by step through this difficult concept. It refers to Newton’s First Law, centripetal force, centripetal acceleration, the definition of velocity and the definition of acceleration. It explains why the velocity changes yet the speed does not change. It gives examples of circular motion and explains the relationship between centripetal force and the mass, speed and radius of orbit of the object. It also relates the speed to the radius of orbit and the time period. There are words to be completed by the student as the teacher explains each step. The third, and last, page has questions designed to check on the understanding of the previous two pages. There is NO reference to the equation F = mv2/r. The second file has the missing words and answers to the questions.

LIGHT Reflection, Refraction and Total internal Reflection Powerpoints

4 Resources
6 Powerpoints to show clearly how rays of light are reflected from a plane mirror and refracted through a glass block, water and a prism. They also shows how TIR occurs and explains the critical angle. It shows exactly how a virtual image is formed in a plane mirror and explains lateral inversion. It explains how to draw an accurate ray diagram and image. It shows how a ray of light refracts through a parallel sided glass block and through water. Includes normal, angle of incidence and angle of refraction. It also explains why water looks shallower than it really is. It shows how rays refract through a glass prism for monochromatic light and white light and Includes normal, angle of deviation and dispersion. TIR is shown for rays travelling from glass into air and from water into air. It includes critical angle and critical ray. It shows how TIR is used in an optical fibre and illustrates the need for cladding glass. It also shows how to find the critical angle using a semicircular glass block and gives the two conditions necessary for TIR to occur. It shows how 45 degree prisms can be used to turn a light ray through 90 degrees and through 180 degrees. A non-45 degree prism is used to further reinforce the concept of TIR. Rays are drawn in stages to show all the steps in constructing an accurate ray diagram.

PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT

2 Resources
The poweroint enables students to visualize the photoelectric effect. It therefore would make a good introduction to this difficult concept. It shows, in an animated way, what happens when light photos of different frequencies hit a metal surface. It explains the threshold frequency, work function and why photoelectrons are emitted with a range of kinetic energies. To aid understanding everything is done in stages so that each step can be explained by the teacher. The first file covers all the whole topic and includes why classical theory could not explain it and how Einstein did. There are words to complete and questions to answer. The fifth, and last page consists of six questions. The second file has the answers. The third file has all the essential points and could be used as a summary of the topic or as revision. The fourth file covers stopping potential and includes a little practice with straight line graphs. The fifth file has the answers.

Introduction to FORCES

6 Resources
This is a complete unit of work on the topic of forces. It includes the different types of forces, mass, weight,balanced forces, net force, net force = ma, Newton’s laws, g, force diagrams and terminal velocity. There are plenty of examples of different situations and plenty of questions, all aimed at consolidating understanding and learning. The answers to all questions are also given. There is also a test, with answers and mark scheme to check on understanding,

Introduction to Forces Work Book

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This is a work book is a comprehensive introduction to forces. The first file is the front page if you decide to use this resource as booklet. The second file has 10 pages that covers resultant (net) force, equilibrium, friction, mass, weight, gravitational fields, calculation of net force and of weight, balanced and unbalanced forces, force diagrams which includes weight, reaction, tension and friction. It also covers the idea that unbalanced forces cause acceleration and balanced forces mean an object is stationary or moving at constant speed. There are plenty of questions to reinforce the concepts and it briefly touches on electrostatic, magnetic and gravitational fields. It does NOT cover F = ma and terminal velocity. The third file has the answers to all the missing words and calculations.

NEWTON'S LAWS

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The first file covers Newtons three laws. It includes the definition of the newton, net force = ma and the relationship between net force, mass and acceleration. There are questions to consolidate understanding. It ends with questions on net force = ma and weight which get progressively harder. The second file has the answers to all the missing words and questions.

CHARGING BY INDUCTION-how electrons move

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The first powerpoint is designed to show how the conduction electrons behave when a metal sphere is charged by induction. Rather than just describing what happens students can clearly see how the electrons move. It shows a metal sphere with positive ions fixed in position and negative conduction electrons. It illustrates how the conduction electrons move when a negative rod is moved towards and away from the sphere. It then shows how the conduction electrons behave when a negative rod is brought close to the sphere which is then briefly connected to earth. The negative rod is then removed, leaving the sphere positively charged. The above is repeated but this time with a positively charged rod which is used to give the sphere a negative charge by induction. The second powerpoint is a simple example of inducing a charge. It shows how electrons are attracted to the top of a tree when a positively charge cloud moves overhead and then return to earth when the cloud moves away.

Introduction to Logic Gates - Including Questions and Applications

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The first file is an Introduction to AND, OR and NOT gates together with their truth tables, followed by seven questions. The second file gives the answers. The third file is a worksheet consisting of seven questions, four of which use combinations of AND, OR and NOT gates. This is designed to consolidate student’s knowledge and can be set for homework. The fourth file gives the answers. The fifth file gives six different applications of the use of AND, OR and NOT gates. They start off as simple questions and become progressively harder. It also introduces the thermistor and LDR as input sensors as well as the need for a relay to operate the output device in certain circumstances. It uses block diagrams to describe circuits. The sixth file gives the answers.

Gravity and the Orbits of Planets and Satellites Student Notes and Questions

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The first file has student notes which cover the force of gravity, orbits and how gravity provides the centripetal force It also shows how the radius of orbit and the speed of the planet are related. It gives information on the planets surrounding the Sun and mentions comets, asteroids, meteors and meteorites. It show how the radius of orbit of a satellite and its speed are related and explains what geostationary and polar obits are as well as giving their different uses. It gives the advantages of having scientific satellites above the earth’s atmosphere and it explains why satellites eventually fall to Earth Lastly it reminds students how the kinetic energy is constant and the momentum is continually changing for an object in orbit at a constant speed. There are a few words to be completed by the student. The second file has the missing words. The third file has a number of questions to check their understanding of the above notes. Students will have to read the notes carefully before answering the questions. The fourth file has the answers to the questions.

Physics KS4, KS5 CIRCULAR MOTION INTRODUCTION

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This powerpoint shows an object moving in a circle. Its aim is to explain the difficult concept of how an object moving in a circle at constant speed is accelerating. It explains this in terms of changing velocity and in terms of their being a resultant force. It emphasizes that the object is not in equilibrium and there is no outwards force. It shows how an object flies off along the tangent when the centripetal force ceases.

Physics KS4, KS5 CIRCULAR MOTION Introduction - Student Notes and Questions

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The first file has student notes which explain why an object moving in a circle at constant speed is accelerating towards the centre of the circle. It goes step by step through this difficult concept. It refers to Newton’s First Law, centripetal force, centripetal acceleration, the definition of velocity and the definition of acceleration. It explains why the velocity changes yet the speed does not change. It gives examples of circular motion and explains the relationship between centripetal force and the mass, speed and radius of orbit of the object. It also relates the speed to the radius of orbit and the time period. There are words to be completed by the student as the teacher explains each step. The third, and last, page has questions designed to check on the understanding of the previous two pages. There is NO reference to the equation F = mv2/r. The second file has the missing words and answers to the questions.

PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT ANIMATION

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This poweroint enables students to visualize the photoelectric effect. It therefore would make a good introduction to this difficult concept. It shows, in an animated way, what happens when light photos of different frequencies hit a metal surface. It explains the threshold frequency, work function and why photoelectrons are emitted with a range of kinetic energies. To aid understanding everything is done in stages so that each step can be explained by the teacher.

TOTAL INTERNAL REFLECTION

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The first powerpoint uses rays travelling from glass into air and from water into air to illustrate TIR. Includes critical angle and critical ray. As an example of a use of TIR there is also a slide showing how light totally internally reflects along an optical fibre and illustrates the need for cladding glass. The second powerpoint shows how you can find the critical angle using a semicircular glass block and gives the two conditions necessary for TIR to occur. The third powerpoint is meant to reinforce the concept of TIR. It shows how 45 degree prisms can be used to turn a light ray through 90 degrees and through 180 degrees. A non-45 degree prism is used to further reinforce the concept of TIR. Rays are drawn in stages to show all the steps in constructing an accurate ray diagram.

PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT

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The first file covers all the whole topic and includes why classical theory could not explain it and how Einstein did. There are words to complete and questions to answer. The fifth, and last page consists of six questions. The second file has the answers. The third file has all the essential points and could be used as a summary of the topic or as revision. The fourth file covers stopping potential and includes a little practice with straight line graphs. The fifth file has the answers.

REFRACTION of LIGHT through GLASS and WATER

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This powerpoint shows how a ray of light refracts into and out of a parallel sided glass block. Includes normal, angle of incidence and angle of refraction. It also explains why water looks shallower than it really is, including real and apparent depth. (It also shows how spear fishermen will miss a fish if they aim for the image!)