A level GeographyQuick View
Cre8tiveHumanitiesCre8tiveHumanities

A level Geography

3 Resources
A huge set of 20 Geography Escape Quizzes for A Level students full of revision questions for Geography. Topics included: Coasts - A level Hazards - A level Water and Carbon Cycles - A Level Each escape Quiz covers a variety of aspects - Escape Quiz for the end or start of a Geography unit. Suitable for A LEVEL Students. (Escape Room Mixed with a self marking and instant feedback Quiz - Perfect for students to do whilst social distancing. All students need is the ability to use or view PowerPoint to participate. Contents of this resource ⇨ 1 x Editable PowerPoint Version (You can edit the secret message left at the end for the students on the white board slide 85) ⇨ 1 x PPTSX Version - Send the file straight to the students or set up on a shared school drive for students to access. ⇨ 1 x Teacher Answer Cheat Sheet - (Contains all the Questions and the Answers) ⇨ 1 x Set of Certificates. ⇨ 1 x Digital Progress bar built in - Quiz Self Marks for the students. How could you use it? ☞ Complete it as a ‘whole class team’ reflection activity ☞ Set it up ready to go in a school computer room - Host a competitive challenge and organise a leader board with escape times. ☞ Send it out to students who can download the file and attempt it in their own time for Homework. ☞ Work specifically with vulnerable student or small group of students and set it up on a large projector and solve as a team whilst led by the teacher or TA to discuss the concepts that come up ☞ Edit the template (slide 85) to have a personal message for each student / Class Why should I purchase it? Perfect fun activity to send to Students or use with students. This escape quiz self marks and provides the student with instant feedback, progress and encouragement. There are lots of hidden aspect to the Escape Quiz and provides great challenge with a sense of adventure. If you leave a nice review to email us at thecre8tiveresources@gmail.com for an extra Geography treat for your students
Geography Christmas QuizQuick View
Cre8tive_ResourcesCre8tive_Resources

Geography Christmas Quiz

(2)
Geography Christmas Quiz - Christmas Interactive Christmas / End of Term Quiz aimed at KS3 or KS4 students. Every round is completely different and not just your boring Q and A style but instead each round tests a different type of skill. (Guess the Present, The Emoji Round, Where is Santa?, Christmas Crackers, Spot the Difference, True or False, Meme Challenge, and More… ) Product Code: FUN/C8/QZ/153 Full 1 hour Lesson ☞ Over 11 rounds and 62+ Questions. Christmas Quiz. This resource contains: ☞ 1x PowerPoint with questions and answers ☞ 1x Student Answer Sheet double sided out of /62+ Marks ☞ 3 sets of Editable Team Certificates (1st place, 2nd place and 3rd place) Round 1: Identify the Christmas Present Guessing Christmas presents before they are unwrapped Round 2: Christmas Around the World Match the Christmas Greeting to the country Round 3: Christmas Cracker Jokes Let your class have a go at pulling the four interactive Christmas Crackers Round 4: Where is Santa is the World Identify the country from its landmass and flag Round 5: Spot the differences at Christmas Time Not as easy as it first appears. Which teams have a careful eye Round 6: Christmas Truth, Fake News or a Lie Good variety of Christmas themed questions Round 7: Emoji Christmas Round Say what you see catch phrase style to make the names of famous Christmas movies Round 8: But which two are right Christmas trivia and confusion Round 9: Anagrams Unscramble the countries Round 10: Multiple Choice Numbers Round Pick the right one Round 11: Identifying Landmarks Geo Round How good is your teams Geo Knowledge This quiz resource is perfect for lesson time, form time, extra curricular clubs, part of a drop down day or as a fun treat for your class. This will last a full hour for the full quiz by the time you get students into small teams and run through the Quiz and the interactive way the answers appear. A tie-breaker is included which involves create a meme top 3 score points. This informative, fun and engaging quiz will be a great way to celebrate the end of term and Christmas. You may also want to check out these other great Cre8tive resources for your students ⇨ Geography Christmas Quiz ⇨ Science Christmas Quiz ⇨ Drama Christmas Quiz ⇨ Maths Christmas Quiz ⇨ BREXIT - EU in or out this Christmas ⇨ History Christmas Quiz ⇨ Christmas Quiz
Geography Christmas QuizQuick View
Cre8tive_ResourcesCre8tive_Resources

Geography Christmas Quiz

(2)
Geography Christmas Quiz - Christmas Interactive 10 Rounds and 70 Questions (Where is santa visiting?, What Country Am I?, Geography True or False, Identify the Flag, Anagrams, Link the food to the country, Design Challenge and more…) Complete with falling snow and the pulling of crackers! Product code: FUN/C8/QZ/71 ☞ Over 10 rounds and 70+ Questions. Christmas Quiz. This resource contains: ☞ 1xPowerPoint ☞ 1x Student Answer Sheet double sided out of /70+ Marks (PDF and PPT Version) and all the answers!! ☞ 3 sets of Editable Team Certificates (1st place, 2nd place and 3rd place) ✰✰✰✰✰✰✰✰✰✰✰✰✰✰✰✰✰✰✰✰✰✰✰✰✰✰✰✰✰✰✰✰✰✰✰✰✰✰✰✰✰ Round 1: Where is Santa Visiting Identify the tourist attraction Round 2: European Countries Which country is Santa delivering presents to? Round 3: True or False Separate the truth from the lies Round 4: What’s the Flag? Use the image and name the flag Round 5: Who am I? Work out the answer from the description Round 6: Linking Round Link the food to the country Round 7: Anagrams Unscramble the letters Round 8: Wordsearch Find all the topical words within the time limit Round 9: Compass Directions Which way is it pointing? Round 10: Where is Santa now? Identify more tourist attractions Tie-Breaker- Design Challenge ✰✰✰✰✰✰✰✰✰✰✰✰✰✰✰✰✰✰✰✰✰✰✰✰✰✰✰✰✰✰✰✰✰✰✰✰✰✰✰✰✰ ✿ This quiz resource is perfect for lesson time, form time, extra curricular clubs, part of a drop down day or as a fun treat for your class. ✿ This will last a full hour by the time you get students into small teams and run through the Quiz and the interactive way the answers appear. A tie-breaker is included which involves drawing an image top 3 score points. This informative, fun and engaging quiz will be a great way to celebrate the end of term and Christmas. You may also want to check out these other great Cre8tive resources for your students ⇨ GCSE Geography 9-1 Revision ⇨ Big film and TV Quiz ⇨ Christmas Quiz - Christmas ⇨ History Christmas Quiz ⇨ Christmas Quiz Tutor Time
The Big Geography Quiz 2021Quick View
EducateandInspireEducateandInspire

The Big Geography Quiz 2021

(1)
The Big Geography Quiz 2021 Welcome to the Big Geography Quiz of 2021. This resource contains lots of questions from a variety of geographical topics aiming to make your lesson fun. It is suitable for all age ranges from young to old, play along with your class or your family and friends at home. We hope you enjoy the resource as much as we did making it. Contains rounds on: · Where in the world? · Name the Landmark · What geographical events happened in 2021? · Geographical records · Flags · What country am I? Full instructions, answers, and guidelines are provided, the PowerPoint is visually impressive, fully editable, and easy to follow. Marking the quiz is a breeze as the answers are clearly shown after each round. Enjoy! Photos and other resources have been referenced from its source. Buy in confidence from a TES-recommended author! Feedback is welcomed and very much appreciated. ** Enjoy!**
End of Year Geography QuizQuick View
Cre8tive_ResourcesCre8tive_Resources

End of Year Geography Quiz

(2)
Over 10 rounds and 70+ Questions. Geography Quiz. Geography Quiz - General Knowledge A fun knowledge quiz that tests a range of different skills with students working in teams to compete against each other. Let the best team win! This resource contains: ☞ 1x PowerPoint with questions and answers laid out in professional format ☞ 1x Student Answer Sheet double sided out of /70+ Marks (PDF and PPT Version) and all the answers!! ☞ Contains 10 Rounds: Name the Tourist Attraction, What Country Am I?, True or False, Identify the Flag, Anagrams, Match the Capital to the Country, Design Challenge and more… ✿ This quiz resource is perfect for lesson time, form time, extra curricular clubs, part of a drop down day or as a fun and educational treat for your class. ✿ A variety of different rounds and different challenges within this quiz for all types of learners to access (something fun no matter what ability) ✿ This quiz resource is perfect for lesson time, form time, extra curricular clubs, part of a drop down day or as a fun treat for your class. ✿ This will last a full hour by the time you get students into small teams and run through the Quiz and the interactive way the answers appear. A tie-breaker is included which involves drawing an image top 3 score points. This informative, fun and engaging quiz will be a great way to teach your students about Geography . Product Code:FUN/C8/QZ/27 Our Philosophy We aim to help you equip students with the knowledge and skills to take ownership of their own learning. Products come ‘Ready-to-Teach’ with everything you need to teach fun and creative lessons. Our products are teacher-designed, classroom tested & student approved. ⥉⥉⥉⥉⥉⥉⥉⥉⥉⥉⥉⥉⥉⥉⥉⥉⥉⥉⥉⥉⥉⥉⥉⥉⥉⥉⥉⥉⥉⥉⥉⥉⥉⥉⥉⥉⥉⥉⥉⥉⥉⥉⥉⥉⥉⥉⥉⥉⥉⥉⥉⥉⥉⥉⥉⥉⥉⥉⥉⥉⥉⥉⥉⥉⥉⥉⥉⥉⥉⥉⥉⥉⥉⥉⥉⥉⥉⥉⥉⥉⥉⥉⥉⥉⥉ You may also want to check out these other great Geography Cre8tive resources for your students: ✿ GCSE Geography Revision 9-1 Bundle - 350 Questions ✿ Geography General Knowledge End of Term Quiz ✿ KS3 Top Selling Geography Escape Room ✿ Map Reading Skills - Geography Escape Room ✿ Geography Christmas Quiz ✿ What is Fair Trade Lesson ✿ FairTrade Fortnight Activity Pack ✿ World Trade Organisation (WTO) Lesson
Ukraine Refugee Crisis - GeographyQuick View
jakesteel401jakesteel401

Ukraine Refugee Crisis - Geography

(0)
Complete lesson covering the Ukrainian refugee crisis. Lesson could be adapted for all key stages. Lesson includes: Do Now Explanation of the difference between asylum seekers & refugees Mind map the reasons for refugees Printable news article and questions on the causes of the conflict Map of refugee movements in Europe and questions Video Printable list of impacts on European host countries & activities Plenary
Christmas Geography Quiz Escape 2021Quick View
Cre8tive_ResourcesCre8tive_Resources

Christmas Geography Quiz Escape 2021

(1)
Christmas Geography whole class escape room. No printing required! Just project the Powerpoint and off you go. Built in timers, Video clips and answer reveals after every slide. This is an educational fun immersive ‘Escape room’ experience. Have the students compete individually, in teams or as a whole class the choice is yours! This resource is a great team-building activity to keep your students engaged during the last few days (or week) leading up to the end of term. There are seven different challenging puzzles and you have the choice of setting the timer at easy, medium or high difficult level for each escape. Students will complete a variety of tasks using different skills including: problem-solving, critical thinking, reading comprehension, literacy challenges and some clever deduction to work out who has stolen the presents this Christmas. The puzzles, bonus questions and challenges are a fun way to assess a topic or subject area. This resource covers a variety of different elements including: vocabulary, key terms. key themes, general subject knowledge, literacy and much more… Escape Room is fully editable and takes less than 1 Minute to set up. Escape Room Contents ☞ Interactive 26 slide Powerpoint Escape Room Challenge ☞ Optional Escape Certificates ☞ Optional Team Sheet (Print it or use scrap paper instead) Common FAQ’s ★Group sizes: 1-30 students per team - (Participants up to 180) ★Time: Approximately 50-60 minutes (Provide hints along the way if time is a factor!) ★Materials: Aside from Powerpoint - all students need is a pen / pencil. How to run this escape Challenge This escape room can be done without any printing we have however still included a team sheet (Slide 2) should you wish to use it, if not plain paper will more than suffice. The escape room is story driven by a YouTube video which is split into 9 sections. Introduction - Puzzle 1 – Puzzle 2 - Puzzle 3 – Puzzle 4 – Puzzle 5 – Puzzle 6 – Puzzle 7 - Success At various points you will be instructed to pause the video at these points you can go to the next slide in the presentation. Each video section (excluding Introduction and Success) will be followed by a puzzle. Every puzzle has three built in timers in the lower right hand corner to put the teams on a time limit of your choice if you so wish. Once the timer has expired or everyone has completed the puzzle teams can check their answers on the next slide using the CLICK TO REVEAL boxes. Once all answers for the current puzzle have been revealed move on to the next video section and subsequent puzzle until all 7 puzzles have been completed and everyone has escaped successfully (Optional) Give out winning certificates to the highest scorers.
Geography in the news: Conflict: Russia and UkraineQuick View
rosamundspeightrosamundspeight

Geography in the news: Conflict: Russia and Ukraine

(0)
LO: To understand the causes and potential effects of Russia’s conflict with the Ukraine. A lesson looking at the current conflict in Crimea. The lesson looks at The geopolitical history of Russia Why Crimea is so important to Russia, Who NATO are Why Russia has so much global influence due to Europe’s dependency on Russia’s natural resources. Gets students to consider the possibility of another world war and the impact the conflict could have on us in the UK.
Primary Geography Subject Leaders GuideQuick View
LovelearninggeographyLovelearninggeography

Primary Geography Subject Leaders Guide

(0)
Primary Geography Subject Leaders Pack A step by step guide designed to help you develop Geography within your school. This will save you so much time. It is easy to follow and will help build confidence in geography. Suitable for a non-specialist. Includes a vibrant interactive power point, Geography audit, Geography subject knowledge quiz, checklist and worksheets. Ask your school to purchase this ready to use resource now and take control of your workload. My aim is to help you grow in confidence, save time and reduce your work load . I hope my resources inspire you and you love teaching geography :) A preview is available on fb page. **Click ** https://www.facebook.com/Lovelearninggeography Information covered Where do I start? Geography Subject Knowledge Audit pdf Subject Knowledge Quiz & Answers Geography Resources Audit How is Geography taught in your school? Geography Checklist Background information about being a Geography subject leader What makes an effective leader? How do I create a scheme of work? What is your vision? How to create a cohesive department Ofsted & The geography department What did I implement? Sources:Pixabay (unless stated) © Love Learning Geography Thank you for looking at my resources. If you download or purchase any of my resources, I would really appreciate feedback. I would love to hear from you! T&C By purchasing my resources, you are agreeing that the contents are the property of Love Learning Geography and licensed to you only for classroom/personal use as a single user. I retain copyright and reserve all rights to this product. You are not permitted to resell or share this item. You may not share it anywhere online (except on secure platforms with your own students).
GeographyQuick View
superageoussuperageous

Geography

(4)
A worksheet with different activities focusing on physical and human geography.
Geography Report CommentsQuick View
TeachallenjoyTeachallenjoy

Geography Report Comments

(0)
Over 260 differentiated geography comments for boys and girls, covering 10 key areas for your primary KS2 reports. Create your report comments quickly this year by simply choosing a collection of comments to suit each child, one from each section. There are enough comments to create different personalised paragraphs of comments for a whole class of 30 children. Written for the whole of KS2 focusing on learning aptitudes and the general areas covered so perfect for years 3, 4 , 5 and 6. Save Time Teaching is busy enough without report writing as well, save time whilst doing a good job. Easily copy and paste these original comments to create personalised and thoughtful reports. Differentiated 264 comments overall, divided into high, middle and low ability groups. Each group contains 10 sections with enough comments to make 30 personalised reports. 65 low ability, 76 middle ability and 85 high ability statements altogether. There are also 30 next steps included, 10 for each ability group. High Quality Use these high quality geography report comments, covering: Summary Continents World Biomes Physical features Human features Major countries Major cities UK Technical terms Geographical fieldwork Easy to Use They all come in a girl and a boy version saving you having to change any pronouns. Collect statements for each child to make a paragraph then simply add in their name a few times to polish off your work. Just highlight the comments you have used to make sure all your 30 geography reports are quickly made and completely different. Also… Check out my other handy end of year resources: General Report Comments 320+ English Report Comments 280+ Maths Report Comments Report Comments MEGA BUNDLE
Ofsted Preparation The Primary Geography TeacherQuick View
LovelearninggeographyLovelearninggeography

Ofsted Preparation The Primary Geography Teacher

(1)
Ofsted Preparation: Deep Dives and The Primary Geography Teacher Ofsted- One word that can fill teachers full of dread! I have spoken to thousands of teachers over the years and many panic about Ofsted. So, I decided to create a power point to enable teachers to prepare for Ofsted and to understand the process. I hope this power point helps reduce fear/ anxiety and you will be able to put your focus back on teaching your class. I have also included general school information. I think it is better to know basic facts about the whole process. It has taken me 40 hours to create and streamline the framework. This will help you build confidence and be Ofsted ready. Information covered: Who are Ofsted? What happens why you get the Ofsted call? Let’s look at the Ofsted judgement- criteria 1- Quality in Education What is the intent? What is your school’s geography vision? What is the implementation? What is the impact? How are you measuring impact? Ofsted criteria 2- Attitude and behaviour How will the criteria be judged? Ofsted criteria 3- personal development Ofsted criteria 4- Leadership and Management What is the geography deep dive? Inspectors’ questions- subject specific Classroom teacher- observations and discussions Student Voice Questions and possible answers Includes: • A power point • Sources: Pixabay (unless stated) & quotes from the framework • Format-Non-editable PPT • ©Love Learning Geography Follow: https://www.facebook.com/Lovelearninggeography I will have a fully edible CPD version available in the future. Thank you for looking at my resources. If you download or purchase any of my resources, I would really appreciate the feedback. I would love to hear from you! *I hope your students love learning geography :) * T&C By purchasing my resources, you are agreeing that the contents are the property of Love Learning Geography and licensed to you only for classroom/personal use as a single user. I retain copyright and reserve all rights to this product. You are not permitted to resell or share this item. You may not share it anywhere online.
Primary Geography Fieldwork KS2Quick View
LovelearninggeographyLovelearninggeography

Primary Geography Fieldwork KS2

(0)
Geography Fieldwork In My Local Area Everything you need to cover the Key Stage 2 Fieldwork section of the National Curriculum. Great for KS3 recap or foundati. I have also included some geographical skills. The work is divided into 3 sections. There are animated & interactive vibrant power points, identification card, worksheets, guidance grid and IT activities. I have also added some free improvement stickers. Each power point can be adapted to meet the needs of your learners. This pack would also be suitable for KS3 if your students have not covered fieldwork in their primary school. This will save you so much time. It is easy to follow and will help students build their confidence in geography. You can teach the sections at your own pace and the ppts can be easily tweaked to your class. The booklet is in pdf. My aim is to improve the transition from primary to secondary geography. Suitable for a non-specialist. To help SEN students I have included a variety of learning styles. All font is in Comic sans, to support dyslexic learners. The ppts can be easily adapted to meet the needs of higher-level learners. The 3 sections are: Part 1 –Locate where you live and create a sketch map Part 2- Look at the physical & human features in your area & create an annotated sketch map Part 3- Take part in a geography fieldwork investigation What is included? • Locate where you live • Find out what region you live in • Use atlases • Use local maps and plans • What does a street map/plan look like? • How to create a sketch map • Use a range of digital technologies • How to create improvement stickers • Recap human and physical features • Look at the physical geography in your local area • Carry out a bird identification survey • How to create a bar graph • Observing, measuring and recording temperature and rainfall • How to draw a line graph • Discover the types of human features around your school • How to draw annotated field sketch from a photograph • Observing, measuring, recording and presenting human and physical features • What is environmental geography? • Take part in a geography investigation • How do I plan and investigation? • Locate your school on a map • What is a method and how do you use it? • A range of methods/tests – Litter count, questionnaire, traffic count, perception test, whole school survey, field sketch and bipolar test • Examples of how to present and describe the results • Summary/Conclusion of the investigation Sources:Pixabay (unless stated) © Love Learning Geography See a preview on https://www.facebook.com/Lovelearninggeography Students will have all the fieldwork knowledge they need to start key stage 3 geography. I have also created the full scheme of work for Key Stage 2 (physical geography). Thank you for looking at my resources. If you download or purchase any of my resources, I would really appreciate the feedback. I would love to hear from you! *I hope your students love learning geography :) *
IGCSE GeographyQuick View
thisisgeographythisisgeography

IGCSE Geography

13 Resources
105 lessons for IGCSE geography themes 1, 2 and 3. All lesson are suitable for 50 minutes to 1 hour of teaching time. Includes supporting worksheets for lessons - no additional resources are required. Population: 1 - Introduction to population 2 - Malthus vs Boserup 3 - Migration 4 - The demographic transition model 5 - Anti-natalist policy, the one-child policy 6 - Over vs underpopulation 7 - Cause of migration 8 - Voluntary vs forced migration - refugees 9 - Ageing population 10 - Population structure 11 - Youthful population 12 - Dense vs sparse population 13 - Jelly baby population Settlement: 1 - Settlement provision 2 - Settlement structure 3 - Settlement services 4 - Rural settlement service provision 5 - Urban settlement service provision 6 - Burgess model and the CBD 7 - Green and brownfield sites 8 - Problems in urban areas 9 - Manchester 10 - Urban regeneration 11 -Urbanisation 12 - Impacts of urbanisation 13 - Squatter settlements 14 - Squatter settlement case study - Dharavi Earthquakes and Volcanoes 1 - What are hazards? 2 - Structure of the earth 3 - Types of volcano 4 - Why live in hazardous areas? 5 - Volcano case study 6 - Earthquakes 7 - Disaster response in Haiti 8 - Disaster response in New Zealand Rivers: 1 - Hydrological cycle and drainage basins 2 - Erosion and deposition 3 - Landforms in the upper course 4 - Landforms in the middle course 5 - Landforms in the lower course 6 - Flooding 7 - Hard and soft engineering 8 - Rivers case study - Somerset 9 - Rivers GIS Coasts: 1 - Waves 2 - Coastal processes 3 - Landforms processes 4 - Erosional landforms 5 - Depositional landforms 6 - Coral reefs 7 - Threats to coral reefs 8 - Mangroves 9 - Hard and soft engineering 10 - Coastal case study 11 - Assessment Weather: 1 - Atmospheric circulation 2 - Measuring the weather 3 - Clouds Climate and Natural Vegetation 1 - Climate zones 2 - Hot deserts 3 - Climate graphs and deserts 4 - Ecosystems 5 - Rainforests 6 - Soil and biodiversity 7 - Opportunities in hot deserts 8 - Causes of deforestation 9 - Impacts of deforestation 10 - Managing the rainforest 11 - Desertification 12 - Sustainable management of the world Development 1 - Development indicators 2 - Industry 3 - Globalisation 4 - TNCs 5 - TNC case study 6 - Trade game Food production 1 - Introduction to agriculture 2 - Food shortages 3 - Food supply and shortages (1) 4 - Food supply and shortages (2) 5 -Food production (Indus Valley) 6 - Famine (Horn of Africa) Industry 1 - Industrial systems 2 - Types of industry 3 - Industrial zones case study Tourism 1 - Growth of tourism 2 - Pros and cons of tourism growth 3 - Eco tourism 4 - Tourism case study (Jamaica) Energy 1 - Growing consumption 2 - Non-renewable energy 3 - Renewable energy 4 - Fuelwood and other energy 5 - Nuclear energy 6 - Hydro-electric power case study 7 - Increasing energy Water 1 - Water supply and use 2 - Water stress 3 - Water management 4 - Lesotho Highland project Environmental Risk of Development 1 - Soil fertility and threats 2 - Deferestification 3 - Climate change and the enhanced greenhouse effect 4 - Managing the environment 5 - Conserving the environment For more resources visit This is Geography. Full SoW for all new GCSE specifications - AQA, Edexcel, OCR, CIE IGCSE, Edexcel IGCSE and Eduqas. As well as over 200 lessons for KS3 and KS2. Want something bespoke designing? Email us for further details info@thisisgeography.co.uk
Geography plan and resources - EuropeQuick View
sophiea1sophiea1

Geography plan and resources - Europe

(0)
Europe plan 8 lesson plan that focuses on a range of topics related to Europe. Lesson 1 - What is Europe like? Lesson 2 - Countries in Europe Lesson 3 - Fact file on a country in Europe Lesson 4 - Capital cities Lesson 5 - Population and currency Lesson 6 - Temperature Lesson 7 - Mountains in Europe Lesson 8 - Landmarks (persuasive writing) Initially planned for Year 4 but could be adapted for other year groups.
Geography glossariesQuick View
TES Resource TeamTES Resource Team

Geography glossaries

(12)
Help students to memorise how to spell and define important key words with these glossaries and spelling lists tailored to the topics you are teaching. Covers coasts, ecosystems, farming, flooding, glaciation, global water systems, natural hazards, population, settlements, structure of the Earth, water systems.