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Science Teacher who Specialises in Biology up to A-Level, Physics up to Triple Level and Mathematics up to KS3. I have experience teaching in both Primary and Secondary, PYP and MYP, AQA both domestic and international, and International Edexcel.

Science Teacher who Specialises in Biology up to A-Level, Physics up to Triple Level and Mathematics up to KS3. I have experience teaching in both Primary and Secondary, PYP and MYP, AQA both domestic and international, and International Edexcel.
Topic 3 Edexcel International AS Level
GregMcCulloughGregMcCullough

Topic 3 Edexcel International AS Level

11 Resources
Complete coverage of the Pearson Edexcel International AS/A Level Specifications topic 3. Learning outcome: 3.1 Know that all living organisms are made of cells, sharing some common features. 3.2 Understand how the cells of multicellular organisms are organised into tissues, tissues into organs and organs into organ systems. 3.3 (i & ii) Know and understand the function of the ultrastructure of eukaryotic cells, including nucleus, nucleolus, ribosomes, rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, centrioles, lysosomes and Golgi apparatus. 3.4 Understand the role of the rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER) and the Golgi apparatus in protein transport within cells, including their role in the formation of extracellular enzymes. 3.5 (i) & (ii) Know and understand the function of the ultrastructure of prokaryotic cells, including cell wall, capsule, plasmid, flagellum, pili, ribosomes and circular DNA. 3.6 Be able to recognise the organelles in 3.3 from electron microscope (EM) images. 3.7 (i) Know how magnification and resolution can be achieved using light and electron microscopy. 3.7 (ii) Understand the importance of staining specimens in microscopy Core Practical 5: 3.8 (i) Use a light microscope to make observations and labeled drawings of suitable animal cells. 3.9 (i) Know that a locus is the location of genes on a chromosome. 3.9 (ii) Understand the linkage of genes on a chromosome. 3.10 Understand the role of meiosis in ensuring genetic variation through the production of non-identical gametes as a consequence of independent assortment of chromosomes in metaphase 1 and crossing over of alleles between chromatids in prophase 1. 3.11 Understand how mammalian gametes are specialised for their functions (including the acrosome in sperm and the zona pellucida in the egg cell). 3.12 Know the process of fertilisation in mammals, including the acrosome reaction, the cortical reaction and the fusion of nuclei. 3.13 Know the process of fertilisation in flowering plants, starting with the growth of a pollen tube and ending with the fusion of nuclei. 3.14 Understand the role of mitosis and the cell cycle in producing genetically identical daughter cells for growth and asexual reproduction. 3.15 Prepare and stain a root tip squash to observe the stages of mitosis. 3.16 Be able to calculate mitotic index. 3.17 (i) Understand what is meant by the terms stem cell, pluripotent and totipotent, morula and blastocyst. 3.17 (ii) be able to discuss the ways in which society uses scientific knowledge to make decisions about the use of stem cells in medical therapies. 3.18 Understand how cells become specialised through differential gene expression, producing active mRNA, leading to the synthesis of proteins which, in turn, control cell processes or determine cell structure in animals and plants. 3.19 Understand how one gene can give rise to more than one protein through post-transcriptional changes to messenger RNA (mRNA). 3.20 (i) Understand how phenotype is the result of an interaction between genotype and the environment. 3.20 (ii) Know how epigenetic modification, including DNA methylation and histone. modification, can alter the activation of certain genes. 3.20 (iii) Understand how epigenetic modifications can be passed on following cell division. 3.21 Understand how some phenotypes are affected by multiple alleles for the same gene, or by polygenic inheritance, as well as the environment, and how polygenic inheritance can give rise to phenotypes that show continuous variation. Content: Lesson 1: Observing Cells History of the microscope and cell theory Light microscope Sample staining Magnification and Resolution Drawing scientific diagrams Electron microscopes Advantages and disadvantages Lesson 2: Eukaryotic Cells Recap of GCSEs Cell organelles There functions What the look like under a microscope Protein transport Lesson 3: Prokaryotic Cells All ultrastructures and their functions Classifying bacteria (including gram staining, shape and oxygen needs) Lesson 4: Cell Organisation Types of tissues Types of epithelial cells Plant and human organs GCSE recall of organ systems and their functions Lesson 5: Cell Cycle and Mitosis. All steps of the cell cycle Mitotic Index Core practical 6 Lesson 6: Sexual Reproduction, Gametes Structure and Function, and Meiosis Importance of sexual reproduction on variation Gamete structure, function and location The steps of meiosis I & II Variation from recombination and independent assortment Lesson 7: Fertilisation in Plants and Animals Internal and external fertilisation Pollination Plant fertilisation Human fertilisation Lesson 8: Cell Differentiation: Gene Expression Cell Differentiation Effect of Multiple Alleles Co-dominance Dihybrid Inheritance Linked Genes. Lesson 9: Interaction Between Genes and the Environment: Environmental effects on Phenotype (Including enzyme activity) Operons Studying Variation in Humans. Lesson 10: Controlling Gene Expression: Transcription Factors RNA Splicing Epigenetics (Including DNA and Histone Methylation, and Histone Acetylation) Non-Coding RNA Lesson 11: Stem Cells and Using Stem Cells: Blastocyst Development Types of Stems Cells Where Stem Cells are collected Epigenetic Control of haemoglobin development Stem Cell Therapy (including Therapeutic Cloning and iPS Cells) Examples of potential treatable conditions Ethics
Eukaryotic Cells
GregMcCulloughGregMcCullough

Eukaryotic Cells

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Eukaryotic Cells: Common Cellular Structures & Protein Transport. Follows the Pearson Edexcel International AS/A Level Specification. Learning outcome: 3.3 (i & ii) Know and understand the function of the ultrastructure of eukaryotic cells, including nucleus, nucleolus, ribosomes, rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, centrioles, lysosomes and Golgi apparatus. 3.4 Understand the role of the rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER) and the Golgi apparatus in protein transport within cells, including their role in the formation of extracellular enzymes. 3.6 be able to recognise the organelles in 3.3 from electron microscope (EM) images. Content: Recap of GCSEs Cell organelles listed in the LOs above. There functions What the look like under a microscope Protein transport
Prokaryotic Cells
GregMcCulloughGregMcCullough

Prokaryotic Cells

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Follows the Pearson Edexcel International AS/A Level Specification. Learning outcome: 3.5 (i) & (ii) Know and understand the function of the ultrastructure of prokaryotic cells, including cell wall, capsule, plasmid, flagellum, pili, ribosomes and circular DNA. Content: All ultrastructures and their functions Classifying bacteria (including gram staining, shape and oxygen needs)
Controlling Gene Expression
GregMcCulloughGregMcCullough

Controlling Gene Expression

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Controlling Gene Expression. Follows the Pearson Edexcel International AS/A Level Specification. Learning outcome: 3.18 Understand how cells become specialised through differential gene expression, producing active mRNA, leading to the synthesis of proteins which, in turn, control cell processes or determine cell structure in animals and plants. 3.19 Understand how one gene can give rise to more than one protein through post-transcriptional changes to messenger RNA (mRNA). 3.20 (i) Understand how phenotype is the result of an interaction between genotype and the environment. 3.20 (ii) Know how epigenetic modification, including DNA methylation and histone. modification, can alter the activation of certain genes. 3.20 (iii) Understand how epigenetic modifications can be passed on following cell division. Content: Transcription Factors RNA Splicing Epigenetics (Including DNA and Histone Methylation, and Histone Acetylation) Non-Coding RNA
Cell Organisation
GregMcCulloughGregMcCullough

Cell Organisation

(0)
Cell organisation, tissues, organs and organ systems. Follows the Pearson Edexcel International AS/A Level Specification. Learning outcome: 3.2 Understand how the cells of multicellular organisms are organised into tissues, tissues into organs and organs into organ systems. Content: Types of tissues, Types of epithelial cells, Plant and human organs, GCSE recall of organ systems and their functions.
Stem Cells & Using Stem Cells
GregMcCulloughGregMcCullough

Stem Cells & Using Stem Cells

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Stem Cells & Using Stem Cells. Follows the Pearson Edexcel International AS/A Level Specification. Learning outcome: 3.17 (i) Understand what is meant by the terms stem cell, pluripotent and totipotent, morula and blastocyst. 3.17 (ii) be able to discuss the ways in which society uses scientific knowledge to make decisions about the use of stem cells in medical therapies 3.18 Understand how cells become specialised through differential gene expression, producing active mRNA, leading to the synthesis of proteins which, in turn, control cell processes or determine cell structure in animals and plants. 2.20 (ii) Know how epigenetic modification, including DNA methylation and histone modification, can alter the activation of certain genes. Content: Blastocyst Development Types of Stems Cells Where Stem Cells are collected Epigenetic Control of haemoglobin development Stem Cell Therapy (including Therapeutic Cloning and iPS Cells) Examples of potential treatable conditions Ethics
The Cell Cycle and Mitosis
GregMcCulloughGregMcCullough

The Cell Cycle and Mitosis

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Cell Cycle and Mitosis. Follows the Pearson Edexcel International AS/A Level Specification. Learning outcome: 3.14 Understand the role of mitosis and the cell cycle in producing genetically identical daughter cells for growth and asexual reproduction. 3.15 Prepare and stain a root tip squash to observe the stages of mitosis. 3.16 Be able to calculate mitotic index. Content: All steps of the cell cycle, including: interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase and cytokinesis. Mitotic Index. Core practical 6.
Cell Differentiation
GregMcCulloughGregMcCullough

Cell Differentiation

(0)
Follows the Pearson Edexcel International AS/A Level Specification. Learning outcome: 3.9 (i) Know that a locus is the location of genes on a chromosome. 3.9 (ii) Understand the linkage of genes on a chromosome. 3.18 Understand how cells become specialised through differential gene expression, producing active mRNA, leading to the synthesis of proteins which, in turn, control cell processes or determine cell structure in animals and plants. 3.21 Understand how some phenotypes are affected by multiple alleles for the same gene, or by polygenic inheritance, as well as the environment, and how polygenic inheritance can give rise to phenotypes that show continuous variation. Content: Gene Expression Cell Differentiation Effect of Multiple Alleles Co-dominance Dihybrid Inheritance Linked Genes.
Sexual Reproduction, Gametes Structure and Function, and Meiosis
GregMcCulloughGregMcCullough

Sexual Reproduction, Gametes Structure and Function, and Meiosis

(0)
Sexual Reproduction, Gametes Structure and Function, and Meiosis. Follows the Pearson Edexcel International AS/A Level Specification. Learning outcome: 3.10 Understand the role of meiosis in ensuring genetic variation through the production of non-identical gametes as a consequence of independent assortment of chromosomes in metaphase 1 and crossing over of alleles between chromatids in prophase 1. 3.11 Understand how mammalian gametes are specialised for their functions (including the acrosome in sperm and the zona pellucida in the egg cell). Content: Importance of sexual reproduction on variation. Gamete structure, function and location. The steps of meiosis I & II. Variation from recombination and independent assortment.
Fertilisation in Plants and Mammals
GregMcCulloughGregMcCullough

Fertilisation in Plants and Mammals

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Fertilisation in Plants and Animals: Follows the Pearson Edexcel International AS/A Level Specification. Learning outcome: 3.12 Know the process of fertilisation in mammals, including the acrosome reaction, the cortical reaction and the fusion of nuclei. 3.13 Know the process of fertilisation in flowering plants, starting with the growth of a pollen tube and ending with the fusion of nuclei. Content: Internal and external fertilisation. Pollination. Plant fertilisation. Human fertilisation.
Observing Cells (Microscopes)
GregMcCulloughGregMcCullough

Observing Cells (Microscopes)

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Follows the Pearson Edexcel International AS/A Level Specification. Learning outcome: 3.1 Know that all living organisms are made of cells, sharing some common features. 3.7 (i) Know how magnification and resolution can be achieved using light and electron microscopy. 3.7 (ii) Understand the importance of staining specimens in microscopy Core Practical 5: 3.8 (i) Use a light microscope to make observations and labeled drawings of suitable animal cells. Content: History of the microscope and cell theory Light microscope Sample staining Magnification and Resolution Drawing scientific diagrams Electron microscopes Advantages and disadvantages
The Chemistry of Life
GregMcCulloughGregMcCullough

The Chemistry of Life

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Follows the Pearson Edexcel International AS/A Level Specification. Learning outcome: 1.1 Understand the importance of water as a solvent in transport, including its dipole nature. Content: Bonding (Ionic, Covalent and hydrogen) Importance of inorganic ions in Biology Importance and properties of water
Carbohydrates
GregMcCulloughGregMcCullough

Carbohydrates

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Carbohydrates. Follows the Pearson Edexcel International AS/A Level Specification. Learning outcome: 1.2 (i) Know the difference between monosaccharides, disaccharides and polysaccharides, including glycogen and starch (amylose and amylopectin). 1.2 (ii) Be able to relate the structures of monosaccharides, disaccharides and polysaccharides to their roles in providing and storing energy β-glucose and cellulose are not required in this topic. 1.4 Know how monosaccharides (glucose, fructose and galactose) join together to form disaccharides (maltose, sucrose and lactose) and polysaccharides (glycogen, amylose and amylopectin) through condensation reactions forming glycosidic bonds, and how these can be split through hydrolysis reactions. Core Practical 1: 1.3 Use a semi-quantitative method with Benedict’s reagent to estimate the concentrations of reducing sugars and with iodine solution to estimate the concentrations of starch, using colour standards. Contents include: What are organic compounds? Monomers and polymers. Mono-, di- and polysaccharides, and their chemical structures. Isomers Bonds between sugars. Forming and breaking bonds between sugars. Testing for reducing sugars and starch.
Chemistry for Biologists (Biological Molecules)
GregMcCulloughGregMcCullough

Chemistry for Biologists (Biological Molecules)

4 Resources
Follows the Pearson Edexcel International AS/A Level Specification. Learning outcome: 1.1 Understand the importance of water as a solvent in transport, including its dipole nature. 1.2 (i) Know the difference between monosaccharides, disaccharides and polysaccharides, including glycogen and starch (amylose and amylopectin). 1.2 (ii) Be able to relate the structures of monosaccharides, disaccharides and polysaccharides to their roles in providing and storing energy β-glucose and cellulose are not required in this topic. Core Practical 1: 1.3 Use a semi-quantitative method with Benedict’s reagent to estimate the concentrations of reducing sugars and with iodine solution to estimate the concentrations of starch, using colour standards. 1.4 Know how monosaccharides (glucose, fructose and galactose) join together to form disaccharides (maltose, sucrose and lactose) and polysaccharides (glycogen, amylose and amylopectin) through condensation reactions forming glycosidic bonds, and how these can be split through hydrolysis reactions. 1.5 (i) Know how a triglyceride is synthesised by the formation of ester bonds during condensation reactions between glycerol and three fatty acids. 1.5 (ii) Know the differences between saturated and unsaturated lipids. 2.6 (i) Know the basic structure of an amino acid. 2.6 (ii) Understand the formation of polypeptides and proteins (amino acid monomers linked by condensation reactions to form peptide bonds). 2.6 (iii) Understand the significance of a protein’s primary structure in determining its secondary structure, three-dimensional structure and properties (globular and fibrous proteins and the types of bonds involved in its three-dimensional structure). 2.6 (iv) Know the molecular structure of a globular protein and a fibrous protein and understand how their structures relate to their functions (including haemoglobin and collagen). Content: Lesson 1 - The Chemistry of Life Bonding (Ionic, Covalent and hydrogen) Importance of inorganic ions in Biology Importance and properties of water Lesson 2 - Carbohydrates What are organic compounds? Monomers and polymers Mono-, di- and polysaccharides, and their chemical structures Isomers Bonds between sugars Forming and breaking bonds between sugars Testing for reducing sugars and starch Lesson 3 - Lipids What are lipids? What are they used for? Composition of lipids Saturated and unsaturated fats and oils Mono-, Di-, and triglycerides Phospholipids (and their nature. But not their use) Lesson 4 - Proteins Amino acid structure The types of amino acids Peptide bonds and polypeptide chains Prime-, second-, terti-, and quarternary structures Bonds within proteins Fibrous and globular proteins (Collagen and Haemoglobin as examples) Conjugated proteins Prosthetic groups Practical ideas
Interactions Between Genes and the Environment
GregMcCulloughGregMcCullough

Interactions Between Genes and the Environment

(0)
Interactions Between Genes and the Environment. Follows the Pearson Edexcel International AS/A Level Specification. Learning outcome: 3.20 (i) Understand how phenotype is the result of an interaction between genotype and the environment. 3.21 understand how some phenotypes are affected by multiple alleles for the same gene, or by polygenic inheritance, as well as the environment, and how polygenic inheritance can give rise to phenotypes that show continuous variation. Content: Environmental effects on Phenotype (Including enzyme activity) Operons Studying Variation in Humans
Mitosis, Meiosis and Reproduction
GregMcCulloughGregMcCullough

Mitosis, Meiosis and Reproduction

3 Resources
Follows the Pearson Edexcel International AS/A Level Specification. Learning outcome: 3.10 Understand the role of meiosis in ensuring genetic variation through the production of non-identical gametes as a consequence of independent assortment of chromosomes in metaphase 1 and crossing over of alleles between chromatids in prophase 1. 3.11 Understand how mammalian gametes are specialised for their functions (including the acrosome in sperm and the zona pellucida in the egg cell). 3.12 Know the process of fertilisation in mammals, including the acrosome reaction, the cortical reaction and the fusion of nuclei. 3.13 Know the process of fertilisation in flowering plants, starting with the growth of a pollen tube and ending with the fusion of nuclei. 3.14 Understand the role of mitosis and the cell cycle in producing genetically identical daughter cells for growth and asexual reproduction. 3.15 Prepare and stain a root tip squash to observe the stages of mitosis. 3.16 Be able to calculate mitotic index. Content: Presentation 1: Cell Cycle and Mitosis. All steps of the cell cycle, including: interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase and cytokinesis. Mitotic Index. Core practical 6. Presentation 2: Sexual Reproduction, Gametes Structure and Function, and Meiosis. Importance of sexual reproduction on variation. Gamete structure, function and location. The steps of meiosis I & II. Variation from recombination and independent assortment. Presentation 3: Fertilisation in Plants and Animals. Internal and external fertilisation. Pollination. Plant fertilisation. Human fertilisation.
Cell Structure
GregMcCulloughGregMcCullough

Cell Structure

4 Resources
Follows the Pearson Edexcel International AS/A Level Specification. Learning outcome: 3.1 Know that all living organisms are made of cells, sharing some common features. 3.2 Understand how the cells of multicellular organisms are organised into tissues, tissues into organs and organs into organ systems. 3.3 (i & ii) Know and understand the function of the ultrastructure of eukaryotic cells, including nucleus, nucleolus, ribosomes, rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, centrioles, lysosomes and Golgi apparatus. 3.4 Understand the role of the rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER) and the Golgi apparatus in protein transport within cells, including their role in the formation of extracellular enzymes. 3.5 (i) & (ii) Know and understand the function of the ultrastructure of prokaryotic cells, including cell wall, capsule, plasmid, flagellum, pili, ribosomes and circular DNA. 3.6 Be able to recognise the organelles in 3.3 from electron microscope (EM) images. 3.7 (i) Know how magnification and resolution can be achieved using light and electron microscopy. 3.7 (ii) Understand the importance of staining specimens in microscopy Core Practical 5: 3.8 (i) Use a light microscope to make observations and labeled drawings of suitable animal cells. Content: Lesson 1: Observing Cells History of the microscope and cell theory Light microscope Sample staining Magnification and Resolution Drawing scientific diagrams Electron microscopes Advantages and disadvantages Lesson 2: Eukaryotic Cells Recap of GCSEs Cell organelles There functions What the look like under a microscope Protein transport Lesson 3: Prokaryotic Cells All ultrastructures and their functions Classifying bacteria (including gram staining, shape and oxygen needs) Lesson 4: Cell Organisation Types of tissues Types of epithelial cells Plant and human organs GCSE recall of organ systems and their functions
Development of Organisms
GregMcCulloughGregMcCullough

Development of Organisms

4 Resources
Follows the Pearson Edexcel International AS/A Level Specification. Learning outcome: 3.9 (i) Know that a locus is the location of genes on a chromosome. 3.9 (ii) Understand the linkage of genes on a chromosome. 3.17 (i) Understand what is meant by the terms stem cell, pluripotent and totipotent, morula and blastocyst. 3.17 (ii) be able to discuss the ways in which society uses scientific knowledge to make decisions about the use of stem cells in medical therapies. 3.18 Understand how cells become specialised through differential gene expression, producing active mRNA, leading to the synthesis of proteins which, in turn, control cell processes or determine cell structure in animals and plants. 3.19 Understand how one gene can give rise to more than one protein through post-transcriptional changes to messenger RNA (mRNA). 3.20 (i) Understand how phenotype is the result of an interaction between genotype and the environment. 3.20 (ii) Know how epigenetic modification, including DNA methylation and histone. modification, can alter the activation of certain genes. 3.20 (iii) Understand how epigenetic modifications can be passed on following cell division. 3.21 understand how some phenotypes are affected by multiple alleles for the same gene, or by polygenic inheritance, as well as the environment, and how polygenic inheritance can give rise to phenotypes that show continuous variation. Content: Lesson 1: Cell Differentiation: Gene Expression Cell Differentiation Effect of Multiple Alleles Co-dominance Dihybrid Inheritance Linked Genes. Lesson 2: Interaction Between Genes and the Environment: Environmental effects on Phenotype (Including enzyme activity) Operons Studying Variation in Humans. Lesson 3: Controlling Gene Expression: Transcription Factors RNA Splicing Epigenetics (Including DNA and Histone Methylation, and Histone Acetylation) Non-Coding RNA Lesson 4: Stem Cells and Using Stem Cells: Blastocyst Development Types of Stems Cells Where Stem Cells are collected Epigenetic Control of haemoglobin development Stem Cell Therapy (including Therapeutic Cloning and iPS Cells) Examples of potential treatable conditions Ethics
Lipids
GregMcCulloughGregMcCullough

Lipids

(0)
Lipids. Follows the Pearson Edexcel International AS/A Level Specification. Learning outcome: 1.5 (i) Know how a triglyceride is synthesised by the formation of ester bonds during condensation reactions between glycerol and three fatty acids. 1.5 (ii) Know the differences between saturated and unsaturated lipids. Content includes: What are lipids? What are they used for? Composition of lipids. Saturated and unsaturated fats and oils. Mono-, Di-, and triglycerides. Phospholipids (and their nature. But not their use).
Proteins
GregMcCulloughGregMcCullough

Proteins

(0)
Proteins. Follows the Pearson Edexcel International AS/A Level Specification. Learning outcome: 2.6 (i) Know the basic structure of an amino acid. 2.6 (ii) Understand the formation of polypeptides and proteins (amino acid monomers linked by condensation reactions to form peptide bonds). 2.6 (iii) Understand the significance of a protein’s primary structure in determining its secondary structure, three-dimensional structure and properties (globular and fibrous proteins and the types of bonds involved in its three-dimensional structure). 2.6 (iv) Know the molecular structure of a globular protein and a fibrous protein and understand how their structures relate to their functions (including haemoglobin and collagen). Contents include: Amino acid structure The types of amino acids Peptide bonds and polypeptide chains Prime-, second-, terti-, and quarternary structures Bonds within proteins Fibrous and globular proteins (Collagen and Haemoglobin as examples) Conjugated proteins Prosthetic groups Practical ideas