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I provide revision notes for University and College students.
Chirality and Stereoisomerism
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Chirality and Stereoisomerism

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Asymmetric centres Achiral and Chiral Asymmetrical (stereogenic/chiral) centre (usually C) Enantiomer pairs Plane polarised light and Polarimeters Absolute configuration Diastereomers Separating racemic pairs (diastereomers)
Functional Groups
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Functional Groups

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Electronegativity Alkyl halides + Substituted alkanes Alcohols Thiols (Mercaptans) Amine Diamines Ethers Thioesters Carbonyl groups Amides Comparing boiling points Comparing pKa Delocalisation of electrons + Acidity and stability Aromatic rings
Oxidative Phosphorylation & Electron Transport Chain
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Oxidative Phosphorylation & Electron Transport Chain

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For University or A Level students studying Metabolism briefly and in depth. Consists of: What is Oxidative Phosphorylation? Electron Transport Chain Functional components of complexes Cytochromes Ochoa’s experiment Energy coupling: Chemiosmotic Hypothesis Mechanism of ATP synthesis
Gluconeogenesis
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Gluconeogenesis

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For University or A Level students studying Metabolism briefly and in depth. Consists of: Why do we need Gluconeogenesis? Steps of Gluconeogenesis Liver and Kidney Regulation crosstalk ATP budget of Glycolysis and Gluconeogenesis How can Cs enter gluconeogenesis? Lactate and Gluconeogenesis Gluconeogenesis and Cori Cycle
Metabolism & Thermodynamics
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Metabolism & Thermodynamics

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For University or A Level students studying Metabolism briefly and in depth. Consists of: Basics of Metabolism Intermediary metabolism Thermodynamics Metabolism and Thermodynamics
Fatty Acid & Lipid Metabolism
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Fatty Acid & Lipid Metabolism

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For University or A Level students studying Metabolism briefly and in depth. Consists of: What are lipids? Triglyceride structure How is energy stored in and released from fat molecules? Lipid digestion/absorption in gut Lipid transport Lipids handling by adipocyte Mobilisation of triacylglycerols Glycerol metabolism Beta-oxidation of FAs ATP yield of Complete oxidation of Palmitate (Saturated) Oxidation of monounsaturated FAs Oxidation of polyunsaturated FAs Oxidation of odd chain FAs Ketogenesis in Starvation
Amino Acid Metabolism
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Amino Acid Metabolism

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For University or A Level students studying Metabolism briefly and in depth. Consists of: Protein degradation Digestion of dietary proteins Cellular protein degradation Dealing with excess AAs Glutamate dehydrogenase is key enzyme in AA deamination AA dehydrogenation drives deamination Vitamin B6 supplies vital Cofactor for Transamination The Urea Cycle Nitrogen transporter to liver from peripheral tissues Integration of Nitrogen metabolism Fate of C skeletons
Glycogen Metabolism & Homeostasis
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Glycogen Metabolism & Homeostasis

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For University or A Level students studying Metabolism briefly and in depth. Consists of: Homeostasis Glycolysis vs Gluconeogenesis vs Glycogenolysis Glucose Homeostasis Glycogen Glycogen synthesis Enzymes Why is Glycogen a branched chain? Regulation of Glycogen synthesis Glycogen degradation Regulation of Glycogen Degradation & Metabolism Insulin - Synthesis Regulation of Glycolysis and Gluconeogenesis Liver response to LOW Concentration of Glucose Insulin vs Glucagon
TCA, CAC, Krebs Cycle
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TCA, CAC, Krebs Cycle

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For University or A Level students studying Metabolism briefly and in depth. Consists of: Steps of the TCA Cycle How is the process aerobic What is net reaction of TCA Cycle if cycle begins and ends with Oxaloacetate? How is the TCA Cycle regulated? DeltaG Values
Pharmacy Medicine Regulation
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Pharmacy Medicine Regulation

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For Students studying Pharmacy. In depth explainations of the following: Medicines Act 1968 European Community Directive 2001/83/EC Human Medicines Regulations (HMR) 2012 Medicines & Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) 3 legal classes of medicinal products Signs of possible misuse Child resistant containers Pharmacy Medicines Packaging Requirements Medicine Collections By Children Medicine Owings Titles, descriptions & emblems Prescription requirements Electronic Prescription Service (EPS) Different types of NHS Prescriptions (Physical + Electronic) EEA Prescriptions Paid Prescriptions NHS Prescription Endorsing Hospital Outpatient Prescriptions Private Prescriptions POM register and Records of POM sales & supplies Repeatable Prescriptions
Acid and Bases
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Acid and Bases

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Bronsted-Lowry theory Acid-Base Reactions Ethanoic Acid Conjugate Acid-Base Pairs Ammonia Acid Strengths Acid Dissociation Constant (Ka) Role of water Henderson-Hasselbalch Equation
Membrane transport
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Membrane transport

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Transporters Channels Facilitated transport Passive transport Active transport Different types of channels Neurotransmitters Glucose transport Rate of transport through passive transporters Active Transport via ATPase pumps Secondary active transport Resting potential Why is resting potential important?
Eukaryotic cells structure and function
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Eukaryotic cells structure and function

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What defines a cell? How are cells alike? What are prions and what diseases can it cause? Prokaryotic cells Eukaryotic cells Unicellular Eukaryotic cells Cell Membrane Plasma membrane Nucleus Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ribosomes Mitochondria Mitochondrial DNA Golgi Apparatus Lysosomes Peroxisomes Cytosol Cytoskeleton Special features of plant cells
Biological Membranes
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Biological Membranes

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Fluid mosaic model Major features of Cell membranes Different types of lipids Sphingolipids Properties controlled by membrane lipids
Assembly structure & function of membrane proteins
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Assembly structure & function of membrane proteins

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Membrane proteins How are proteins associated with lipid bilayers? RBC plasma membrane Functions of plasma membrane RBC Cytoskeleton Cryo-EM and membrane protein structure Membrane transport Passive permeability Facilitated transport
Amino-acids, proteins, peptides
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Amino-acids, proteins, peptides

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In depth explanation of: Primary Proteins Secondary Proteins Tertiary Proteins Quaternary Proteins Renin-angiotensin system Stereochemistry Descriptions of different types of amino acids and examples: Simple Amino acids Alkyl Amino acids Aromatic Amino acids Alkylhydroxy Amino acids Basic Amino acids Carboxylic acid derivatives
Fatty Acid & Lipid Synthesis
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Fatty Acid & Lipid Synthesis

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For University or A Level students studying Metabolism briefly and in depth. Consists of: What are building blocks of fatty acids? FA Synthesis - Overall Reaction Comparison of Synthesis and Oxidation Palmitate: Synthesis vs Oxidation Citrate transfers Acetyl group to Cytosol Steps of Fatty Acid synthesis How is Fatty Acid metabolism regulated? - Allosteric & Hormonal regulation