# Phil Hatchard's Shop

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#### Critical Angle & Total Internal Reflection

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Worksheet (2 pages) and Homework (1 page) (with answers) for Critical Angle and Total Internal Reflection. Including an explanation of light refracting away from the normal when leaving a denser medium, and how this relates to the critical angle. Calculations for working out the critical angle or refractive index when given one of those two values. Total internal reflection, its uses, and light ray diagrams for fibre-optic cables. A corresponding presentation is free to use and embedded at physics.mrhatchard.co.uk in Section 4 (Waves). Written for the Cambridge IGCSE Coordinated Sciences and Combined Sciences courses, but obviously a large content overlap with various GCSE courses also.

#### Wave Speed, Frequency and Wavelength

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Worksheet (2 pages) and Homework (1 page) (with answers) for Wave Speed, Frequency and Wavelength. Including using the formula, lots of calculation questions, including the odd question thrown in where they are given the period instead of the frequency, and where the units are not always metres and Hertz (but millimetres or kHz, for example). A corresponding presentation is free to use and embedded at physics.mrhatchard.co.uk in Section 4 (Waves). Written for the Cambridge IGCSE Coordinated Sciences and Combined Sciences courses, but obviously a large content overlap with various GCSE courses also.

#### Refractive Index

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Worksheet (2 pages) and Homework (1 page) (with answers) for Refractive Index. Including questions on the concept and definition, and calculations to find the refractive index, the angle of incidence, and the angle of refraction. A corresponding presentation is free to use and embedded at physics.mrhatchard.co.uk in Section 4 (Waves). Written for the Cambridge IGCSE Coordinated Sciences and Combined Sciences courses, but obviously a large content overlap with various GCSE courses also.

#### Light Ray Diagrams - Plane Mirrors

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Worksheet (3 pages) and Homework (1 page) (with answers) for mirror diagrams, including the Law of Reflection (angles of incidence and reflection equal), and the concept of virtual images. Includes measuring angles of incidence/reflection. Opportunity to have able students practice trigonometry to calculate exact values of these angles using SOHCAHTOA (my answers are to nearest 0.5 degree). A corresponding presentation is free to use and embedded at physics.mrhatchard.co.uk in Section 4 (Waves). Written for the Cambridge IGCSE Coordinated Sciences and Combined Sciences courses, but obviously a large content overlap with various GCSE courses also.

#### The Electromagnetic Spectrum

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Worksheet (2 pages) and Homework (1 page plus second sheet for cutting and sticking) (with answers) for The Electromagnetic Spectrum. Including names of the different types of electromagnetic radiation, their uses and the risks and dangers. Some reference to speed, frequency and wavelength. A corresponding presentation is free to use and embedded at physics.mrhatchard.co.uk in Section 4 (Waves). Written for the Cambridge IGCSE Coordinated Sciences and Combined Sciences courses, but obviously a large content overlap with various GCSE courses also.

#### How Many Boxes Fit? (Relating to Enlargement and Area/Volume Scale Factors)

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Short worksheet to prime students to think about how small boxes would physically fit inside a larger box, rather than simply work out the volume of each and divide to work out how many fit inside (which may not work if the boxes don't fit snugly).

#### Reflection, Refraction, Diffraction

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Worksheet (2 pages) and Homework (1 page) (with answers) for an introduction to reflection, refraction and diffraction of waves. A corresponding presentation is free to use and embedded at physics.mrhatchard.co.uk in Section 4 (Waves). Includes definitions, wavefront diagrams, explanations for refraction. Written for the Cambridge IGCSE Coordinated Sciences and Combined Sciences courses, but obviously a large content overlap with various GCSE courses also.

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#### Refraction of Light

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Worksheet (2 pages) and Homework (1 page) (with answers) for Refraction of Light. Including refraction of light rays through parallel-sided (rectangular) glass blocks, and prisms. Explanation for refraction and dispersion of light, based on the frequency and wavelength of different colours. A corresponding presentation is free to use and embedded at physics.mrhatchard.co.uk in Section 4 (Waves). Written for the Cambridge IGCSE Coordinated Sciences and Combined Sciences courses, but obviously a large content overlap with various GCSE courses also.

#### Algebraic Substitution Introduction - Basic visual introduction

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Basic visual introduction to both writing expressions and substituting in values. This uses the concept of a variable as a physical token that has some monetary value. I've made it to use with some of my Year 11s who have some big gaps in their understanding so I'm going back to basics with them. I'm going onto solving equations from here so I'll add more when I build on this topic a bit later.

#### Bar Charts, Histograms, Frequency Polygons

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A lesson on Frequency Diagrams: Bar charts for discrete or qualitative data Histograms/bar charts for grouped continuous data with equal width class intervals Frequency Polygons Includes: Examples in a Smart Notebook file with accompanying worksheets for them to do along with the teacher. Worksheets with two examples of each type of frequency diagram for them to complete independently. Model answers included. The Notebook file builds slide by slide, so you can start to fill in the next detail to show them how it works (start to label axes, use rectangle tool for bars, for example), and then skip to the next slide to show what it should look like when that step in the process is complete.

#### Sports Leagues Data Handling Investigation

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A short investigation that has students finding the number of possible combinations of pairs items from a given set, through listing numbers of games played in different sizes of sports league. Able students will find the algebraic rule - n(n-1) games when playing home and away - and find the link to triangle numbers when teams only play each other once. Plenty of possible extensions that I’ll leave up to you!

#### Properties of Numbers Displays

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Doc and PDF formats. Includes: * Factors &amp; Multiples (which I used by printing together onto A3 and laminating) * Prime Numbers and Prime Factors (which I used by printing together onto A3 and laminating) * Square Numbers (which I printed, sliced up into its individual squares, laminated, then sliced up again and stuck on the wall in sequence) * Cube Numbers (did as above with the square numbers)

#### Rolling Dice Investigation

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An investigation for combinations of possible outcomes, finding that there are more ways of getting some results, and introducing sample space diagrams. Students predict the results when rolling one and then two dice, and share results to build up a larger more reliable data set. There are then extension activities that they may choose from. Opportunities for students to: Make predictions Use the concept of ‘expectation’ Consider that a larger data set is more reliable and gives better predictions than a smaller one Consider whether individual dice might be biased, if this comes up in results Learn about sample space diagrams as an efficient way to list combinations of outcomes Extend the investigation to dig deeper into an aspect of their choice This investigation easily fills a whole lesson.

#### Percentages of Quantities - Calculator Methods - inc Reverse Percentage Change and Compound Interest

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Resources I made for an interview lesson (I got the job) with a mixed ability group that had a wide range of abilities. Starts with a RAG activity so students can select their own starting point, which can range from Changing Percentages to Decimals, to Compound Interest. Each worksheet is an explanation of the skill, some basic questions and then exam questions. Enough resources to easily last two or three lessons. Presentation Pre-Lesson RAG Activity Percentages to Decimals Percentages of Quantities Percentage Change Reverse Percentage Change Compound Interest

#### Number Thermometer Display

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A number thermometer for the wall going from 10 down to -10. I prefer to have a vertical number line rather than a horizontal one, as it feels much easier to explain numbers getting higher and lower if they’re going up and down. A blank unlabelled thermometer is included too, so if you laminate before putting it onto the wall you can write different numbers on.

#### Inequalities - Using the signs correctly, listing integer results and inequalities on a number line

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For KS3 or KS4 (particularly low ability). &quot;Crocodile eats the bigger number&quot; using the signs correctly between two values, then between 2 sums, then with a little bit of simple algebra (with values of a, b and c given). Listing the possible integer solutions of a simple inequality. Representing inequalities on a number line, and writing inequalities down from a number line. Quite a few answers to odd questions are done for them to help the students check their own approach as they go.

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