How to answer History DBQ (GCSE) source based questions

How to answer History DBQ (GCSE) source based questions

In a bid to help our students think more like historians we set them various styles of question based on the sources in DBQs. These helpful little cards can be used with any document or piece of evidence in history. They work for any time period and help our students to address real issues of provenance and purpose. I devised these initially to support the English GCSE OCR History syllabus followed in my school and to help prepare my students for any question that might come up in their end of year exam. However, they would be helpful to any student getting to grips with analysing sources and also how to write to write good answers with an analytical focus. You can print out the 8, two-sided cards. Fold them over length ways and the correct backing is with the correct frontispiece. One side explains how to address a particular type of question and the other gives examples of sentence starters or good answers. Questions include: - Why was this source published? - What is the main message of this source? - Do you trust this source over another? - How far do you agree with the statement…? - Does the source prove that…? - How useful is this source to an historian?- How similar are these sources? - What could an historian learn from this source about…? I had mine printed on yellow card and laminated for every student in my exam classes. They have proven invaluable to them as they practiced exam style questions in test prep and revision. I hope you and your students find them as useful.
PerfidiaBlackheart
Tolland Man Murder Mystery - interpreting evidence using inference

Tolland Man Murder Mystery - interpreting evidence using inference

This lesson is an introduction to the mystery of the Tolland Peat Bog Man and what happened to him. This lesson is designed to get younger KS3 pupils questioning evidence. They have to make a decision as to whether he was murdered, committed suicide or it was an accident. Pupils should work in pairs and the teacher drip feeds the information gradually to encourage pupils to form opinions and have them challenged. They then can present their decision to the rest of the class using the evidence. Contains three worksheets, full lesson plans and a fully animated Powerpoint presentation like a news report.
PerfidiaBlackheart
Who was Jack the Ripper? History Mystery Suspect Tournament

Who was Jack the Ripper? History Mystery Suspect Tournament

Can your students decide who Jack the Ripper was out of a cast of 12 suspects? In this lesson they will compare and evaluate 12 possible suspects before deciding on the most likely guilty person. They will then justifying their decision both verbally and in writing. The lesson works as a knockout tournament, comparing two suspects at a time. They must apply the background information presented to them along with the suspect cards to come up with the most plausible answer. It is great for developing higher order thinking skills especially when they have to tease out the strengths and weaknesses of each suspect. It also provides me with some fabulous display ideas using the students work! The lesson contains: - 23 slide powerpoint. -12 Suspect Information cards (on the powerpoint to be printed off in handout mode and cut out - they are in colour and also black and white versions to help you save some ink!) - Information handout sheet ont he five acknowledged victims of Jack the Ripper. - 3 page detailed lesson plan. - Tournament structure handout sheet (also on powerpoint in colour and black and white) - The last task is to write a P.E.E.L. paragraph. The lesson is does not contain any graphic imagery, all photos of the victims are from when they were alive. But the written content on the victims, being as it is about a serial killer, is a bit gory. So I recommend this for high school more than middle school. Thanks for looking! ********************************************************************************************************************* TERMS OF USE: This download (free or purchased) is for your own personal use in your classroom or your home. Please do not share my resources with others unless given explicit consent by me. Please direct them to my store instead. You may not share this download. You may not alter any item in this download, resell and claim as your own work. Similarly, you may not sell or share these resources with anyone and you may not use the contents of this download to create anything for commercial purposes or other commercial products. If you are an education board or school and would like to use my resources district wide, please contact me about licensing. © A. Hughes (MsHughesTeaches) All rights reserved.
PerfidiaBlackheart
Tolland Man Murder Mystery - interpreting evidence using inference

Tolland Man Murder Mystery - interpreting evidence using inference

This lesson is an introduction to the mystery of the Tolland Peat Bog Man and what happened to him. This lesson is designed to get younger KS3 pupils questioning evidence. They have to make a decision as to whether he was murdered, committed suicide or it was an accident. Pupils should work in pairs and the teacher drip feeds the information gradually to encourage pupils to form opinions and have them challenged. They then can present their decision to the rest of the class using the evidence. Contains three worksheets, full lesson plans and a fully animated Powerpoint presentation like a news report.
PerfidiaBlackheart
Diwali Cryptogram Puzzle

Diwali Cryptogram Puzzle

Can your class work out the number/letter code and decipher the paragraph on Diwali? Can they then use this paragraph to tell you three key facts about the religious celebration? This quiz works well as a stand alone activity to start a topic or as a recap before a test. These cryptograms also make excellent homework activities!
PerfidiaBlackheart
The Diwali Story

The Diwali Story

This lesson aims to teach students about the legend story behind the celebrations of Diwali. It tells the story of Rama, Sita and the the demon Ravana. There are links to an animated version of the story and examples from the BBC of how people celebrate in the UK today. There is a worksheet telling the story with 10 comprehension questions to be completed from memory afterwards. Finally the students can draw a cartoon strip of the story or try the technique of drawing the whole story in one picture. There is also the option to create shadow puppets of the story as a further project.
PerfidiaBlackheart
Emily Wilding Davison - A Suffragette Suicide? HISTORY MYSTERY!

Emily Wilding Davison - A Suffragette Suicide? HISTORY MYSTERY!

The death of Emily Wilding Davison at The Derby in June 1913 was one of the key events of the Suffragette movement in the UK. When she ran in front of the King's horse, Anmer did she intend to commit suicide or was she merely trying to break up the race in protest? This has interested historians for over one hundred years. This lesson asks whether her death was a suicide or a protest 'gone wrong'. Your students must gather the evidence and evaluate it to ultimately come to a decision on what they think. They then use this to write an extended piece supported by the evidence available. The lesson contain: *13 slide animated PowerPoint presentation *A full lesson plan * A clue sheet * Evidence graphic organiser. This is great lesson for developing your students' historical skills as well as improving their knowledge of women's history and the campaign for the right to vote. Thanks ***************************************************************************** TERMS OF USE: This download (free or purchased) is for your own personal use in your classroom or your home. Please do not share my resources with others unless given explicit consent by me. Please direct them to my store instead. https://www.teacherspayteachers.com/Store/Ms-Hughes-Teaches You may not share this download. You may not alter any item in this download, resell and claim as your own work. Similarly, you may not sell or share these resources with anyone and you may not use the contents of this download to create anything for commercial purposes or other commercial products. If you are an education board or school and would like to use my resources district wide, please contact me about licensing. © A. Hughes (MsHughesTeaches), 2017 All rights reserved.
PerfidiaBlackheart
Blind Date - Who should Queen Elizabeth I marry? Powerpoint and worksheet lesson

Blind Date - Who should Queen Elizabeth I marry? Powerpoint and worksheet lesson

This lesson can be used as part of a unit on British Monarchs, the Tudors, even Shakespeare or simply as a stand alone lesson. Queen Elizabeth I faced may problems when she came to the throne of England in 1558. The lack of money in the treasury, fear of attack and the issue of marriage. This lesson deals with who Elizabeth could or should marry. The powerpoint takes on the format of the television programme Blind Date (the Dating Game in the USA where one contestant must choose from three potential dates base don what they say. In this case Elizabeth I plays the bachelorette and is offered three men: -Charles Hatton -King Charles of Spain -Robert Dudley Earl of Leicester. -She also has another option to stay unmarried. The students have to decide in pairs or in groups, which choice she should make. I get some of my students to sit at the front on stools (like in the show) and read out the parts to start with and give it a bit of character! The lesson pack contains: - Fully Animated Powerpoint - Table worksheet to fill in aspects of each man - Information sheet on the four options (this could also be cut into separate cards for use in groups.) I hope your students find this as enjoyable and informative as mine do! Thanks for looking. ***************************************************************************** TERMS OF USE: This download (free or purchased) is for your own personal use in your classroom or your home. Please do not share my resources with others unless given explicit consent by me. Please direct them to my store instead. https://www.teacherspayteachers.com/Store/Ms-Hughes-Teaches You may not share this download. You may not alter any item in this download, resell and claim as your own work. Similarly, you may not sell or share these resources with anyone and you may not use the contents of this download to create anything for commercial purposes or other commercial products. If you are an education board or school and would like to use my resources district wide, please contact me about licensing. © A. Hughes (MsHughesTeaches), 2014 All rights reserved.
PerfidiaBlackheart
Middle Ages: How did people FEEL before, during and after the Black Death?

Middle Ages: How did people FEEL before, during and after the Black Death?

This lesson aims to get students empathising with those that lived through the Medieval Black Death. They must put the events of the 1348 plague in the correct chronological order and then consider the emotions people would have felt at those different times. Each student has a set of emotion cards to hold up for each event. When I first taught this lesson I envisaged students holding up just one emotion card for each date and event but they surprised me with the complexity of their thinking and reasoning. Many students were able to use the emotions cards to explain how they might have conflicting emotions when, for example they hear rumours from the nearest town or when the plague has passed them by. Ultimately the students cut and stick the event cards in chronological order and then draw an emotion picture next to it to show how they would feel at each point. They should also write down AT LEAST one sentence explaining why they would feel this way. I use this lesson as preparation for writing their own historical fiction about the Black Death. It works well for character building and character motivation later on. It also helps students to think about cause and effect and the impact on individuals of major events. Lesson contains: 13 slide PowerPoint (print out as a handout to use the events slides as cards) 6 emotion 'cards' (one blank for the students to create their own) An example of student work to give an idea of outcome. Thanks for looking! ***************************************************************************** TERMS OF USE: This download (free or purchased) is for your own personal use in your classroom or your home. Please do not share my resources with others unless given explicit consent by me. Please direct them to my store instead. https://www.teacherspayteachers.com/Store/Ms-Hughes-Teaches You may not share this download. You may not alter any item in this download, resell and claim as your own work. Similarly, you may not sell or share these resources with anyone and you may not use the contents of this download to create anything for commercial purposes or other commercial products. If you are an education board or school and would like to use my resources district wide, please contact me about licensing. © A. Hughes (MsHughesTeaches)All rights reserved.
PerfidiaBlackheart
What was daily life like for slaves on a plantation? DBQ full lesson

What was daily life like for slaves on a plantation? DBQ full lesson

This lesson focuses on the primary evidence from the time to describe and explain what life was like for slaves on American plantations in the 19th century. The lesson begins with a desk jigsaw that the students must put together and attempt to work out the topic of the lesson. They then use the source material as a DBQ to identify, describe, explain and analyse. This works well to develop their historical skills. The lesson resources are differentiated by level of activity that match the respective lesson objectives and by the amount of resources they must use for the DBQ. You can use the same with the whole class or if you have a very widely varied ability level you can give out the relevant sheets to match each student. The top ability are encouraged throughout to consider a sources reliability based on the origin, nature and purpose. However, I think all students can begin to do this and evaluate the sources in front of them. Lesson contains: 1. Simple lesson plan 2. A 20 slide animated powerpoint with notes for teacher direction where needed. 3. 3 differentiated source DBQs with differentiated tasks. Thank you for looking
PerfidiaBlackheart
Growing Bundle! Native American Peoples

Growing Bundle! Native American Peoples

This bundle is small at the moment but it will grow! Grab a bargain at over 20% off these three resources. This bundle contains a lesson on the religions of the Native Plains Tribes, a source based enquiry on why Europeans went to he Americas in the 15th/16th centuries and a full GCSE standard lesson on the Native American Civil Rights Movement.
PerfidiaBlackheart
Tudor Christmas - Henry VIII, Mary Tudor, Edward VI and Elizabeth I

Tudor Christmas - Henry VIII, Mary Tudor, Edward VI and Elizabeth I

This three-page history worksheet explains the ways that people in Tudor England celebrated Christmas. It includes information on food, entertainment and the religious celebrations happened at that time. From stuffed peacocks to Christmas sports, student will learn where some of our current traditions come from and learn of others that have been lost along the way. The students complete the activities integrated into the sheet including, comprehension activities and questions, 'draw your own feast', design a banquet and write the diary of a rich person at Christmas. It might also be an nice idea for extending thinking to get some students to consider what the servants day may have been like instead. Thanks for having a look and I hope you find this useful! MsHughesTeaches ***************************************************************************** TERMS OF USE: This download (free or purchased) is for your own personal use in your classroom or your home. Please do not share my resources with others unless given explicit consent by me. Please direct them to my store instead. You may not share this download. You may not alter any item in this download, resell and claim as your own work. Similarly, you may not sell or share these resources with anyone and you may not use the contents of this download to create anything for commercial purposes or other commercial products. If you are an education board or school and would like to use my resources district wide, please contact me about licensing. © A. Hughes (MsHughesTeaches)
PerfidiaBlackheart
How successful was President George Bush Senior?

How successful was President George Bush Senior?

This is a lesson about the presidency of George H.W. Bush 1989-1993. The skills objective for the lesson are to improve their evaluation and interpretation skills. The pupils must create a criterion to judge President Bush Senior's administration against. They have to consider their own views, those of the two parties and put it into context of the time. This lesson was taught as part of the WJEC History GCSE Route A Unit: USA 1929-2000. BUt would be useful for History and politics students at secondary level.
PerfidiaBlackheart
Who was Jack the Ripper? History Mystery Suspect Tournament

Who was Jack the Ripper? History Mystery Suspect Tournament

Can your students decide who Jack the Ripper was out of a cast of 12 suspects? In this lesson they will compare and evaluate 12 possible suspects before deciding on the most likely guilty person. They will then justifying their decision both verbally and in writing. The lesson works as a knockout tournament, comparing two suspects at a time. They must apply the background information presented to them along with the suspect cards to come up with the most plausible answer. It is great for developing higher order thinking skills especially when they have to tease out the strengths and weaknesses of each suspect. It also provides me with some fabulous display ideas using the students work! The lesson contains: - 23 slide powerpoint. -12 Suspect Information cards (on the powerpoint to be printed off in handout mode and cut out - they are in colour and also black and white versions to help you save some ink!) - Information handout sheet ont he five acknowledged victims of Jack the Ripper. - 3 page detailed lesson plan. - Tournament structure handout sheet (also on powerpoint in colour and black and white) - The last task is to write a P.E.E.L. paragraph. The lesson is does not contain any graphic imagery, all photos of the victims are from when they were alive. But the written content on the victims, being as it is about a serial killer, is a bit gory. So I recommend this for high school more than middle school. Thanks for looking! ********************************************************************************************************************* TERMS OF USE: This download (free or purchased) is for your own personal use in your classroom or your home. Please do not share my resources with others unless given explicit consent by me. Please direct them to my store instead. You may not share this download. You may not alter any item in this download, resell and claim as your own work. Similarly, you may not sell or share these resources with anyone and you may not use the contents of this download to create anything for commercial purposes or other commercial products. If you are an education board or school and would like to use my resources district wide, please contact me about licensing. © A. Hughes (MsHughesTeaches) All rights reserved.
PerfidiaBlackheart
The Holocaust: How did the Nazis make Jewish People outcasts in their own country?

The Holocaust: How did the Nazis make Jewish People outcasts in their own country?

This lesson aims to get students to understand how something as horrific as the Nazi Holocaust could happen in a seemingly civilised society. The lesson focuses on the gradual removal of Jewish people from everyday life in Germany throughout the 1930s. I use the equation of Propaganda + Terror + Laws allowed this to happen. The lesson suggests that it was a combination of all of these three methods that made Jews outcasts in their own countries. The lesson contains: - 11 slide PDF presentation (not adaptable) - 2x differentiated worksheets to complete based on ability. (photocopy on A3 for enough space to write.) - 1 information sheet - Full lesson plan - Essay proformer sheet if needed. Students are taught by presentation and then complete the sheets using the information sheet provided. The sheets are differentiated by task from identify and describe through to explain and evaluate. Thanks for looking! **************************************************************** TERMS OF USE: This download (free or purchased) is for your own personal use in your classroom or your home. Please do not share my resources with others unless given explicit consent by me. Please direct them to my store instead. You may not share this download. You may not alter any item in this download, resell and claim as your own work. Similarly, you may not sell or share these resources with anyone and you may not use the contents of this download to create anything for commercial purposes or other commercial products. If you are an education board or school and would like to use my resources district wide, please contact me about licensing. © Amy Hughes (MsHughesTeaches) All rights reserved.
PerfidiaBlackheart
Artefacts as Evidence - Time Team Investigation

Artefacts as Evidence - Time Team Investigation

This is an artefact handling lesson encouraging pupils to use objects as evidence about the past. Pupils ask questions in their groups with low and higher order question and question stems. Focus in the 'WH' questions for year 7. Pupils should make inferences from the evidence and 'educated guesses'. You will need a selection of artefacts, they could be weird objects, coins, reproduction documents like ID cards etc. Mixed ability groups work well for an activity like this. The groups can give feedback together or the groups can use 'ambassadors' who then feedback to their own group.
PerfidiaBlackheart
History Mysteries Bundle - Inference and Evidence

History Mysteries Bundle - Inference and Evidence

Help your students improve their inference and deductions skills with these lessons. In these lessons students work in pairs or groups to evaluate the evidence and arguments given and reach a valid judgement. Save over 20% on the items if bought separately! Check out the individual lessons in my store. Grab a bargain.
PerfidiaBlackheart
World War One resources

World War One resources

Three lessons on various aspects of the First World War, including war poetry, desertion using primary source materials and The 1914 Christmas Truce int he trenches.
PerfidiaBlackheart
All About Easter Crossword Puzzle

All About Easter Crossword Puzzle

This crossword has 10 questions about the Easter celebration and traditions. It would work well as a starter activity or bell ringer. Clip art from: www.clipartstand.com Digital Dollface https://www.teacherspayteachers.com/Store/Digital-Dollface Digital Dollface ***************************************************************************** TERMS OF USE: This download (free or purchased) is for your own personal use in your classroom or your home. Please do not share my resources with others unless given explicit consent by me. Please direct them to my store instead. You may not share this download. You may not alter any item in this download, resell and claim as your own work. Similarly, you may not sell or share these resources with anyone and you may not use the contents of this download to create anything for commercial purposes or other commercial products. If you are an education board or school and would like to use my resources district wide, please contact me about licensing. © Amy Hughes (MsHughesTeaches) All rights reserved.
PerfidiaBlackheart
Medieval Christmas

Medieval Christmas

This three-page worksheet explains the ways that people in Medieval England celebrated Christmas. It includes information on food, entertainment and the religious celebrations happened at that time. From frumentry to Christmas carols, student will learn where some of our current traditions come from and learn of others that have been lost along the way. The students complete the activities integrated into the sheet. Task 1: A comprehension gap-fill activity. Task 2: Use a picture to imagine and then describe a Medieval Banquet scene. Task 3: Answer questions based on the text. Task 4: Design their own Medieval banquet menu based in the food section of the work sheet. Task 5: Draw and label their own medieval banquet. Thanks for having a look. ***************************************************************************** TERMS OF USE: This download (free or purchased) is for your own personal use in your classroom or your home. Please do not share my resources with others unless given explicit consent by me. Please direct them to my store instead. You may not share this download. You may not alter any item in this download, resell and claim as your own work. Similarly, you may not sell or share these resources with anyone and you may not use the contents of this download to create anything for commercial purposes or other commercial products. If you are an education board or school and would like to use my resources district wide, please contact me about licensing. © A. Hughes (MsHughesTeaches)
PerfidiaBlackheart
Were the Gunpowder Plotters framed?  History Mystery

Were the Gunpowder Plotters framed? History Mystery

"Remember, Remember The 5th of November. Gunpowder, Treason and Plot?" Get your students thinking like historians and evaluating evidence. In this lesson students have to infer and reach a reasoned judgement based on the evidence at hand. This includes primary sources and secondary reports. The class works in pairs to decide whether Guy Fawkes and his fellow accused were guilty of attempted mass murder or if they were framed by the government at the tim was an excuse to crack down on Catholicism in Britain. The evidence is not given to them all at once, instead the teacher drip feeds it throughout the lesson. This is in a bid to challenge preconceived ideas and see if pupils will change their minds when faced with new data or sources. They begin with a clip telling the traditional story of events from Horrible Histories. Then in 3 minute intervals more evidence is presented either not the whiteboard or on a sheet of clues. The last task is to write an extended piece (like a DBQ) explaining whether or not they believe the men were framed, innocent or (most may say) entrapped. The lesson fits with the common core requirement for students to analyse, evaluate and consider causation and consequence. It is designed for the UK National Curriculum and I have kept in the level descriptors as these may help you with grading your students as they are skill descriptors: ie: identify, then describe then explain then evaluate at the top end of ability. But if not they can be easily deleted from the slides. The zip file contains: - 13 slide, fully animated powerpoint - Clues from the scene worksheet - Answer worksheet - 3 minute clip Horrible Histories (also available on Youtube) - lesson plan description My classes have had great fun with this lesson. It can stand alone or be used a a project, for example on The Stuarts. I hope you find this useful and enjoyable. If you do, please check out my other History Mysteries, including my Bundle... ***************************************************************************** TERMS OF USE: This download (free or purchased) is for your own personal use in your classroom or your home. Please do not share my resources with others unless given explicit consent by me. Please direct them to my store instead. You may not share this download. You may not alter any item in this download, resell and claim as your own work. Similarly, you may not sell or share these resources with anyone and you may not use the contents of this download to create anything for commercial purposes or other commercial products. If you are an education board or school and would like to use my resources district wide, please contact me about licensing. © A. Hughes (MsHughesTeaches), 2016 All rights reserved.
PerfidiaBlackheart
How did Stalin become a dictator? Cryptogram Puzzle

How did Stalin become a dictator? Cryptogram Puzzle

Can your students beat the puzzle code and find out who the dictator was and three key facts about him? This word code puzzle is about the rise of Stalin. It is an interesting topic and works well as a bell ringer or introduction to the topic. It also works well simply as a brain teaser for any topic in high school social studies. Students have to work out the letter/number code and fill in the paragraph accordingly. Four letters have been given already to help start them off. I introduce an element of competition to keep my classes focused. Not only do they have to fill in the paragraph they must pick out at least 3 key facts or inventions and be the first to tell me as the teacher. Keeps the students heads down and learning something! Thanks for looking! *************************************************************************** TERMS OF USE: This download (free or purchased) is for your own personal use in your classroom or your home. Please do not share my resources with others unless given explicit consent by me. Please direct them to my store instead. You may not share this download. You may not alter any item in this download, resell and claim as your own work. Similarly, you may not sell or share these resources with anyone and you may not use the contents of this download to create anything for commercial purposes or other commercial products. If you are an education board or school and would like to use my resources district wide, please contact me about licensing. © A. Hughes (MsHughesTeaches)
PerfidiaBlackheart
The Christmas Truce 1914 World War One history lesson

The Christmas Truce 1914 World War One history lesson

This worksheet tells the story of the Christmas that stopped a war. On Christmas Day 1914 the battlefields of Northern Europe became peaceful as soldiers from both the German and British front lines stepped out on to No-mans-land, shook hands, exchanged gifts, sang carols and played football. The very next day they went back to fighting each other. I think this is a really inspirational true story showing the spirit of Christmas. It consists of a 3 page worksheet with 5 tasks at the end. You can use the clip from the film 'Oh, what a lovely war' on you tube to illustrate this. The URL is also on the worksheet. I think this story would be relevant to several ages but you might just want to change the activities. Possibly story get the younger years to storyboard in a cartoon strip instead of answering the questions. I hope your class find this as interesting as my classes have. Thanks for looking! ***************************************************************************** TERMS OF USE: This download (free or purchased) is for your own personal use in your classroom or your home. Please do not share my resources with others unless given explicit consent by me. Please direct them to my store instead. You may not share this download. You may not alter any item in this download, resell and claim as your own work. Similarly, you may not sell or share these resources with anyone and you may not use the contents of this download to create anything for commercial purposes or other commercial products. If you are an education board or school and would like to use my resources district wide, please contact me about licensing. All rights reserved. © A. Hughes (MsHughesTeaches)
PerfidiaBlackheart
Does President Hoover deserve to be so unpopular?

Does President Hoover deserve to be so unpopular?

This lesson focuses on President Herbert Hoover and his reaction to the Great Depression after the Wall Street Crash 1929. Your students have to use the information provided to decide whether he was a bad leader or if he was just unlucky to be President at the time of the Crash. The class have to read through the sheet provided and highlight the information that supports both interpretations of Hoover in two different colours. they then use this to write the concluding paragraph to the essay "Did President Hoover deserve to be so unpopular?" If you have more time you could get the students to write the full essay. Lesson Contains: 5 slide powerpoint 3 sided worksheet of information for students to infer from. lesson plan Thanks for looking. ***************************************************************************** TERMS OF USE: This download (free or purchased) is for your own personal use in your classroom or your home. Please do not share my resources with others unless given explicit consent by me. Please direct them to my store instead. You may not share this download. You may not alter any item in this download, resell and claim as your own work. Similarly, you may not sell or share these resources with anyone and you may not use the contents of this download to create anything for commercial purposes or other commercial products. If you are an education board or school and would like to use my resources district wide, please contact me about licensing. All rights reserved. © A. Hughes (MsHughesTeaches)
PerfidiaBlackheart