Organic Chemistry

Organic Chemistry

These five PowerPoints were planned as part of the IB scheme of work on Organic Chemistry, and cover the necessary content for both the Standard and Higher Level topics. It would also be suitable for other post-16 courses. Included are fully completed PowerPoints, student versions of the PowerPoints with sections to complete independently and some exam style questions. Topics included are: Organic Chemistry - Fundamentals and Functional GroupsEdit this resource In Chemistry by caverre 0 ratings These two PowerPoints were planned as part of the IB scheme of work on Organic Chemistry, and covers the necessary content for the Standard Level topics. It would also be suitable for other post-16 courses. Included are fully completed PowerPoints, student versions of the PowerPoints with sections to complete independently and some exam style questions. Topics covered: - Different kinds of formula e.g. molecular, empirical - Alkanes - Alkenes - Compounds involving a benzene ring - Homologous Series - IUPAC nomenclature - Naming halogenoalkanes - Naming alcohols, ethers, aldehydes, ketones and carboxylic acids - Esters - Primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols, halogenoalkanes and amines - Structural Isomerism - Functional Group Isomerism - Benzene and Aromatic Compounds - Combustion of alkanes - Reaction of alkanes with halogens - Reactions of alkenes - Addition polymerisation - Oxidation of alcohols - Nucleophilic Substitution mechanisms of primary, tertiary and secondary halogenoalkanes - Factors affecting the rate of nucleophilic substitution - Electrophilic Addition mechanisms - Markovnikov´s Rule - Electrophilic subtitution mechanisms - Reduction Reactions - Reaction pathways and synthetic routes - Cis-trans isomerism - Conformational isomerism - Optical isomerism - Optical Isomers and Plane-polarised light - Racemic mixtures - Diastereoisomers
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Biochemistry - SL and HL Units

Biochemistry - SL and HL Units

This unit was planned as part of the Chemistry IB Option B - Biochemistry scheme of work, and covers all the topics at SL and HL. It would also be suitable for other schemes of work. It includes 10 full PowerPoints, along with student versions to use as notes, which have spaces for the students to add in missing information and activities for them to complete. It also includes exam questions for practice or assessment purposes Topics covered are: Introduction to Biochemistry - Metabolism - Biochemical reactions in terms of oxidation and reduction - Respiration - Photosynthesis - Hydrolysis and Condensation reactions Proteins - 2 amino acids and their behaviour as zwitterions - Gel electrophoresis - Paper chromatography - Peptides - Hydrolysis of peptides - Proteins - primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures - Acid-base properties of amino acids and proteins - Acid-base buffers - Enzymes - Induced fit theory - Non competitive and competitive inhibition - The Michaelis-Menten equation - Protein Assays Lipids - Fatty acids - Triglycerides - Calculating the iodine number - Hydrolysis of triglycerides - Rancidity of fats - Energy values of fats - Phospholipids - Steroids (including cholesterol) - Sex hormones - Anabolic steroids Carbohydrates - Monosaccharides - Reducing sugars - Disaccharides - Polysaccharides - Starch, glycogen and cellulose Vitamins - Preventing deficiencies - Water and fat solubilities of vitamins - Vitamin A - Vitamin C - Vitamin D - Decomposition of vitamins Environmental Impacts of Biochemistry - Xenobiotics - Metabolism of xenobiotics - DDT - PCBs - Heavy metal toxicity - Pharmaceutically active compounds and detergents - Host-guest complexes - Polymers - Green Chemistry Nucleic Acids - Nucleic Acids - Nitrogeneous Bases and Nucleotides - ATP - The structure of DNA - DNA profiling - DNA replication - Transcription - Genetic Engineering Biological Pigments - Coloured compounds and biological pigments - Carotenes - Porphyrins - Haemoglobin - Factors affceting oxygen uptake in haemoglobin - Foetal haemoglobin - Cytochromes - Chlorophyll - Anthocyanins - Melanin Stereochemistry in Biomolecules - Stereoisomerism - 2-amino acids - Fischer and CORN projections - Stereochemistry in Carbohydrates - Stereochemistry cyclic forms of monosaccharides - Stereochemistry in cellulose - Stereochemistry in fatty acids - Stereochemistry in retinal and vision chemistry
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Key Stage 3 Science Homework Projects

Key Stage 3 Science Homework Projects

18 homework projects on key stage 3 science, linked to the Exploring Science scheme of work. 7A - Cells 7B - Reproduction 7C - Adaptations 7E - Acids and Alkalis 7F - Chemical reactions 7H - Solutions 7I - Energy Resources 7J - Electricity in the Home 8A - Food and Digestion 8C - Microbes and Disease 8E - Classifying Elements 8I - Heating and Cooling 9B - Health and Fitness 9C - Plants 9E - Metals and their reactions 9G - Environmental Chemistry 9L - Pressure Recycling
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iGCSE Chemistry Moles Unit of Work

iGCSE Chemistry Moles Unit of Work

This booklet and accompanying PowerPoints covers the Moles topic for iGCSE Chemistry. It would also be useful for other courses, as it covers all of the topics in the list below. The booklet is designed to be interactive and to be filled in by the students, accompanied by the PowerPoints. It includes spaces for worked calculations, exercises, past paper questions (taken from the Cambridge iGCSE papers) and two practicals. The answers to the exercises are also provided for the workbook and are shown on the PowerPoints. What exactly is a mole? How can we convert between masses and moles? How do we deal with diatomic molecules? Converting between mass and moles in compounds Calculating the % by mass of an element in a compound Balancing Equations Reacting Masses Limiting Reagents Percentage Yield Practical - How much copper sulphate can we get from malachite? Percentage Purity Empirical Formula Moles in Gases Moles in Solutions Titrations Practical – What is the concentration of sodium hydroxide? I also have another scheme of work where this booklet has been altered slightly for the Co-ordinated Science Chemistry moles unit.
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Energy, Kinetics and Equilbria

Energy, Kinetics and Equilbria

These PowerPoints were planned as part of the IB schemes of work on Energy, Kinetics and Equilibria They cover the necessary content for both the Standard and Higher Level topics. They would also be suitable for other post-16 courses. Included are fully completed PowerPoints, student versions of the PowerPoints with sections to complete independently and some exam style questions. Topics covered include: - The difference between heat and temperature - Endothermic and Exothermic reactions - Stability and enthalpy changes - Standard enthalpy change of reaction (ΔHΘr) - Measuring Standard enthalpy change of combustion (ΔHΘc) including calculations - Measuring enthalpy changes in solution including calculations - Hess´Law - Standard Enthalpy Change of Formation (ΔHΘf) - Bond Enthalpies and Average Bond Enthalpies - Born Haber Cycles - Comparison of Lattice Enthalpies - Dissolving Ionic Substances - Hydration Enthalpies - Spontaneity and Disorder - Entropy - How to predict the sign of an entropy change - Entropy across period 2 - Standard Entropy Change: ΔSθ - Predicting whether a reaction will be spontaneous - Calculating ΔSθ Universe - Gibbs Free Energy - At what temperature does a reaction become feasible? - Gibbs Free Energy and Equilibrium - What is rate of reaction? - Methods of measuring the rate of reaction - Collision Theory - The effect of temperature, concentration, pressure, surface area and catalysts on the rate of reaction - Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution curves - The effect of temperature on Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution curves - The rate constant and rate equation - Determining the order of reaction from experimental data - Characteristics of 0, 1st and 2nd order reactions - Using reaction mechanisms to identify the rate determining step - Using the rate determining step to determine the reaction mechanism of a reaction - Mechanisms of reactions involving catalysts - The Arrenhius Equation - Determining the activation energy of a reaction via line of best fit and equation methods - Effect of activation energy on the rate of reaction - Effect of a catalyst on the Arrenhius equation - The difference between reversible reactions and equilibria - Dynamic equilibrium and the characteristic of the equilibrium state - Physical equlibria - What is meant by the term ´position of equilibrium´ - Le Chatelier´s Principle - Effect of temperature on the position of equilibrium - Effect of pressure on the position of equilibrium - Effect of concentration on the position of equilibrium - Effect of a catalyst on the position of equilibrium - The General Equilibrium Law - Calculating the equilibrium constant - The reaction quotient - Effect of changing reaction conditions on Kc - Calculating the equilibrium constant from the number of moles of reaction components - Calculating the concentrations of reaction components from the equilibrium constant - Explaining the effect of changes in concentration on Kc - Explaining the effect of changes in pressure on Kc - The relationship between equilibrium and Gibbs Free Energy - Calculating Kp
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Atomic Structure, Periodicity and Structure and Bonding

Atomic Structure, Periodicity and Structure and Bonding

These PowerPoints were planned as part of the IB schemes of work on Atomic Structure, Periodicity (including transition metal chemistry and coloured complexes) and Structure and Bonding. They cover the necessary content for both the Standard and Higher Level topics. They would also be suitable for other post-16 courses. Included are fully completed PowerPoints, student versions of the PowerPoints with sections to complete independently and some exam style questions.
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Structure and Bonding

Structure and Bonding

These PowerPoints were planned as part of the IB scheme of work on Structure and Bonding and cover the necessary content for both the Standard and Higher Level topics. They would also be suitable for other post-16 courses. Included are fully completed PowerPoints, student versions of the PowerPoints with sections to complete independently and some exam style questions. Topics included are: Ionic Bonding What is ionic bonding? Common positive and negative ions Working out the formula of ionic compounds Giant ionic lattices Properties of ionic substances Covalent Bonding What is covalent bonding? How to draw Lewis structures How to tell if a substance will be ionic or covalent The Octet rule and how it can be broken Coordinate bonds and compounds which contain them Resonance structures VSEPR theory Shapes of molecules with up to 6 bonding pairs Shapes of molecules with up to 6 bonding and lone pairs Giant covalent bonding - diamond, graphite and silica Intermolecular Bonding - London forces - Permanent dipole-permanent dipole forces - Permanent dipole-induced dipole forces - Hydrogen bonding - Solubility and intermolecular forces Metallic Bonding How do we describe a metallic structure? How to predict which metal will have the high melting point Properties of metals Properties of alloys Advanced covalent bonding, electron domains and molecular geometries Assigning formal charge Exceptions to the octet rule Formation of sigma and pi bonds The composition of single, double and triple bonds Resonance hybrids and delocalisation The structure of benzene - Kekule and delocalised Absorption of UV light in the atmosphere Catalysis of ozone depletion by CFCs and NOx gases Hybridisation sp3, sp2, sp hybridisation: how it happens, resulting shapes and how to identify molecules with each type of hybridisation.
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Energy Changes and Hess´ Law

Energy Changes and Hess´ Law

These 3 PowerPoints were planned as part of the IB schemes of work on Energy. They would also be suitable for other post-16 courses. Included are fully completed PowerPoints, student versions of the PowerPoints with sections to complete independently and some exam style questions. Topics covered include: - The difference between heat and temperature - Endothermic and Exothermic reactions - Stability and enthalpy changes - Standard enthalpy change of reaction (ΔHΘr) - Measuring Standard enthalpy change of combustion (ΔHΘc) including calculations - Measuring enthalpy changes in solution including calculations - Hess´Law - Standard Enthalpy Change of Formation (ΔHΘf) - Bond Enthalpies and Average Bond Enthalpies - Born Haber Cycles - Comparison of Lattice Enthalpies - Dissolving Ionic Substances - Hydration Enthalpies
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Entropy

Entropy

This 50 slide PowerPoint was planned as part of the IB schemes of work on Energy. They would also be suitable for other post-16 courses. Included are fully completed PowerPoints including many examples, student versions of the PowerPoints with sections to complete independently and some exam style questions. Topics covered include: - Spontaneity and Disorder - Entropy - How to predict the sign of an entropy change - Entropy across period 2 - Standard Entropy Change: ΔSθ - Predicting whether a reaction will be spontaneous - Calculating ΔSθ Universe - Gibbs Free Energy - At what temperature does a reaction become feasible? - Gibbs Free Energy and Equilibrium
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Atomic Structure

Atomic Structure

These PowerPoints were planned as part of the IB scheme of work on Atomic Structure, and cover the necessary content for both the Standard and Higher Level topics. It would also be suitable for other post-16 courses. Included are fully completed PowerPoints, student versions of the PowerPoints with sections to complete independently and some exam style questions. Topics included are: - The structure of the atom - The development of the theory of atomic structure from Dalton-present day - Isotopes and their properties - Calculating the R.A.M. of an isotope - Calculating the % abundance of two isotopes, given the R.A.M. - Radioisotopes and their uses - The mass spectrometer: what it is used for, how it works, why it works and how to read mass spectra - How to calculate the energy of a photon of light - Atomic Emission Spectra - How to write full electronic configurations for elements up to the 4p orbital - How to write full electronic configurations for ions of the elements up to the 4p orbital - The convergence limit of energy in energy levels and how this links to First Ionisation Energy - Trends in First Ionisation Energy and how this provided evidence for the presence of orbitals
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Periodicity

Periodicity

This 86 slide PowerPoint was planned as part of the IB scheme of work on Periodicity, and covers the necessary content for Standard Level topics. It would also be suitable for other post-16 courses. Included are the fully completed PowerPoint, a student version of the PowerPoint with sections to complete independently and some exam style questions. Topics included are: - The development of the Periodic Table - The structure and arrangement of the Periodic Table - How metallic/non-metallic properties change as you go left to right across the periodic table - How atomic radius of elements changes across periods and down groups, and why this occurs - How ionic radius of ions changes across periods and down groups, and why this occurs - How first ionisation energies of elements changes across periods and down groups, and why this occurs - How electron affinity of elements changes across periods and down groups, and why this occurs - How electronegativity of elements changes across periods and down groups, and why this occurs - Properties and reactions of the Group I metals - Properties and reactions of the Group XVII non-metals - The acid-base character and reactions of the period 2 and 3 oxides
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Transition Metal Chemistry and Coloured Complexes

Transition Metal Chemistry and Coloured Complexes

These two PowerPoints were planned as part of the IB scheme of work on Periodicity, including Transition Metal Chemistry and the Chemistry behind coloured complexes, and cover the necessary content for both the Higher Level topics. It would also be suitable for other post-16 courses. Included are fully completed PowerPoints, student versions of the PowerPoints with sections to complete independently and some exam style questions. Topics included are: - Electronic structures of the Transition Metals - Electronic structures of Transition Metal ions - The definition of a Transition Metal - Properties of Transition Metals - Variable oxidation states and the trend in First Ionisation Energies - Paramagnetism and Diamagnetism - Complex Ions - Transition Metals as catalysts - How colour occurs in compounds - Ligand Field Theory - Which Transition Metals are coloured and which are colourless and why - Factors which affect colour - including identity of the metal, charge on the metal and identity of the ligand
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Atomic Structure and Periodicity

Atomic Structure and Periodicity

These PowerPoints were planned as part of the IB schemes of work on Atomic Structure and Periodicity (including transition metal chemistry and coloured complexes) and cover the necessary content for both the Standard and Higher Level topics. They would also be suitable for other post-16 courses. Included are fully completed PowerPoints, student versions of the PowerPoints with sections to complete independently and some exam style questions. Topics included are: - The structure of the atom - The development of the theory of atomic structure from Dalton-present day - Isotopes and their properties - Calculating the R.A.M. of an isotope - Calculating the % abundance of two isotopes, given the R.A.M. - Radioisotopes and their uses - The mass spectrometer: what it is used for, how it works, why it works and how to read mass spectra - How to calculate the energy of a photon of light - Atomic Emission Spectra - How to write full electronic configurations for elements up to the 4p orbital - How to write full electronic configurations for ions of the elements up to the 4p orbital - The convergence limit of energy in energy levels and how this links to First Ionisation Energy - Trends in First Ionisation Energy and how this provided evidence for the presence of orbitals - The development of the Periodic Table - The structure and arrangement of the Periodic Table - How metallic/non-metallic properties change as you go left to right across the periodic table - How atomic radius of elements changes across periods and down groups, and why this occurs - How ionic radius of ions changes across periods and down groups, and why this occurs - How first ionisation energies of elements changes across periods and down groups, and why this occurs - How electron affinity of elements changes across periods and down groups, and why this occurs - How electronegativity of elements changes across periods and down groups, and why this occurs - Properties and reactions of the Group I metals - Properties and reactions of the Group XVII non-metals - The acid-base character and reactions of the period 2 and 3 oxides - Electronic structures of the Transition Metals - Electronic structures of Transition Metal ions - The definition of a Transition Metal - Properties of Transition Metals - Variable oxidation states and the trend in First Ionisation Energies - Paramagnetism and Diamagnetism - Complex Ions - Transition Metals as catalysts - How colour occurs in compounds - Ligand Field Theory - Which Transition Metals are coloured and which are colourless and why - Factors which affect colour - including identity of the metal, charge on the metal and identity of the ligand
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Equilibria

Equilibria

These two PowerPoints were planned as part of the IB scheme of work on Equilibria, and cover the necessary content for both the Standard and Higher Level topics. It would also be suitable for other post-16 courses. Included are fully completed PowerPoints, student versions of the PowerPoints with sections to complete independently and some exam style questions. Topics included are: - The difference between reversible reactions and equilibria - Dynamic equilibrium and the characteristic of the equilibrium state - Physical equlibria - What is meant by the term ´position of equilibrium´ - Le Chatelier´s Principle - Effect of temperature on the position of equilibrium - Effect of pressure on the position of equilibrium - Effect of concentration on the position of equilibrium - Effect of a catalyst on the position of equilibrium - The General Equilibrium Law - Calculating the equilibrium constant - The reaction quotient - Effect of changing reaction conditions on Kc - Calculating the equilibrium constant from the number of moles of reaction components - Calculating the concentrations of reaction components from the equilibrium constant - Explaining the effect of changes in concentration on Kc - Explaining the effect of changes in pressure on Kc - The relationship between equilibrium and Gibbs Free Energy - Calculating Kp
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Rates of Reaction / Kinetics

Rates of Reaction / Kinetics

These four PowerPoints were planned as part of the IB scheme of work on Kinetics, and cover the necessary content for both the Standard and Higher Level topics. It would also be suitable for other post-16 courses. Included are fully completed PowerPoints, student versions of the PowerPoints with sections to complete independently and some exam style questions. Topics included are: - What is rate of reaction? - Methods of measuring the rate of reaction - Collision Theory - The effect of temperature, concentration, pressure, surface area and catalysts on the rate of reaction - Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution curves - The effect of temperature on Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution curves - The rate constant and rate equation - Determining the order of reaction from experimental data - Characteristics of 0, 1st and 2nd order reactions - Using reaction mechanisms to identify the rate determining step - Using the rate determining step to determine the reaction mechanism of a reaction - Mechanisms of reactions involving catalysts - The Arrenhius Equation - Determining the activation energy of a reaction via line of best fit and equation methods - Effect of activation energy on the rate of reaction - Effect of a catalyst on the Arrenhius equation
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Medicinal Chemistry - Standard and Higher Level

Medicinal Chemistry - Standard and Higher Level

This PowerPoint was planned as part of the IB scheme of work on Medicinal Chemistry, and covers the necessary content for the all of the Standard and Higher Level units. It would also be suitable for other post-16 courses. It includes 9 full PowerPoints, along with student versions to use as notes, which have spaces for the students to add in missing information and activities for them to complete. It also includes exam questions for practice or assessment purposes Topics covered are: Pharmaceutical Products and Drug Design - Routes of drug administration - Theraputic Effects of Drugs - The Placebo Effect - Side Effects - Calculation of the Therapeutic Index - The Therapeutic Window - Bioavailability - Tolerance and Addiction - Drug Action - Drug Development by both Drug Design and Drug Discovery Aspirin and Penicillin - History of Aspirin - Method of Producing Aspirin - Calculating the % Yield of Aspirin produced from Salicyclic Acid - Effects of Aspirin - Soluble Aspirin - Development of Penicillin - Structure of Penicllin - How Penicillin Works - Antibiotic Resistance Opiates - Morphine: Structure and action; side effects; withdrawal - How opiates cross the blood-brain barrier - Diamorphine pH regulation of the stomach - The need for stomach acid - pH calculations to determine the concentration of acid in the stomach - Antacids: equations for their reactions with stomach acid; side effects; calculation of quantity of acid neutralised - Regulation of acid production using both H2-histamine receptor blockers (Zantac) and proton pump inhibitors (Omeprazole and Esomeprazole) - Acid-base buffers: definition and calculations - Hydrogencarbonate and carbonate buffers Antivirals - The differences between viruses and bacteria - The structure of viruses - How viruses reproduce and replicate - How viruses are treated by interrupted stages of the replication process - Oseltamivir and Zanamivir - structure and action - HIV and AIDS - Treatment of HIV and AIDS Environmental impacts of Biochemistry - Effects of PACs on the environment - Antibiotic Resistance - Nuclear Waste (both LLW and HLW) - Chlorinated solvent waste - Supercritical fluid waste - Green Chemistry - Biotechnologies in Green Chemistry Taxol - The Discovery of Paclitaxel - Isolation of Taxol - Structure of Taxol - Semi-synthetic production of Taxol - Clinical use of Taxol - The use of chiral auxiliaries to produce one enantiomer of Taxol - Confirmation of the purity of a single enantiomer drug - Thalidomide Nuclear Medicine - The use of radionuclides in medicine - Types of ionising radiation - Radiotherapy - Radioactive Decay - Targeted alpha therapy - Boron neutron capture therapy - Use of gamma emitters in radiotherapy - Radiodiagnostics - Positron Emission Tomography - Use of Technetium-99m - Half life and decay constant calculations - Magnetic Resonance Imaging Drug Detection and Analysis - Worked example of the identification of aspirin by NMR, IR and Mass Spectrometry - Worked example of the identification of an unknown compound from NMR, IR and Mass Spectrometry - Extraction and purification of organic products - Worked example of hormone concentration using partition coefficients - How polarity affects the partition coefficients - Raoult´s Law - Fractional Distillation - Drug detection in sports - Drug detection in forensic science - Chemistry of breathalyzer tests - HPLC and Gas chromatography
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Medicinal Chemistry - Higher Level

Medicinal Chemistry - Higher Level

This unit was planned as part of the Chemistry IB Option D - Medicinal Chemistry scheme of work, and covers all the topics at HL. It would also be suitable for other schemes of work. It includes 3 full PowerPoints, along with student versions to use as notes, which have spaces for the students to add in missing information and activities for them to complete. It also includes exam questions for practice or assessment purposes Topics covered are: Taxol - The Discovery of Paclitaxel - Isolation of Taxol - Structure of Taxol - Semi-synthetic production of Taxol - Clinical use of Taxol - The use of chiral auxiliaries to produce one enantiomer of Taxol - Confirmation of the purity of a single enantiomer drug - Thalidomide Nuclear Medicine - The use of radionuclides in medicine - Types of ionising radiation - Radiotherapy - Radioactive Decay - Targeted alpha therapy - Boron neutron capture therapy - Use of gamma emitters in radiotherapy - Radiodiagnostics - Positron Emission Tomography - Use of Technetium-99m - Half life and decay constant calculations - Magnetic Resonance Imaging Drug Detection and Analysis - Worked example of the identification of aspirin by NMR, IR and Mass Spectrometry - Worked example of the identification of an unknown compound from NMR, IR and Mass Spectrometry - Extraction and purification of organic products - Worked example of hormone concentration using partition coefficients - How polarity affects the partition coefficients - Raoult´s Law - Fractional Distillation - Drug detection in sports - Drug detection in forensic science - Chemistry of breathalyzer tests - HPLC and Gas chromatography
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Biochemistry and Medicinal Chemistry - Standard and Higher Level

Biochemistry and Medicinal Chemistry - Standard and Higher Level

These 18 PowerPoints were planned as part of the IB schemes of work on Biochemistry and Medicinal Chemistry, and covers the necessary content for the all of the Standard and Higher Level units. It would also be suitable for other post-16 courses. It includes 18 full PowerPoints, along with student versions to use as notes, which have spaces for the students to add in missing information and activities for them to complete. It also includes exam questions for practice or assessment purposes Topics covered are: Pharmaceutical Products and Drug Design - Routes of drug administration - Theraputic Effects of Drugs - The Placebo Effect - Side Effects - Calculation of the Therapeutic Index - The Therapeutic Window - Bioavailability - Tolerance and Addiction - Drug Action - Drug Development by both Drug Design and Drug Discovery Aspirin and Penicillin - History of Aspirin - Method of Producing Aspirin - Calculating the % Yield of Aspirin produced from Salicyclic Acid - Effects of Aspirin - Soluble Aspirin - Development of Penicillin - Structure of Penicllin - How Penicillin Works - Antibiotic Resistance Opiates - Morphine: Structure and action; side effects; withdrawal - How opiates cross the blood-brain barrier - Diamorphine pH regulation of the stomach - The need for stomach acid - pH calculations to determine the concentration of acid in the stomach - Antacids: equations for their reactions with stomach acid; side effects; calculation of quantity of acid neutralised - Regulation of acid production using both H2-histamine receptor blockers (Zantac) and proton pump inhibitors (Omeprazole and Esomeprazole) - Acid-base buffers: definition and calculations - Hydrogencarbonate and carbonate buffers Antivirals - The differences between viruses and bacteria - The structure of viruses - How viruses reproduce and replicate - How viruses are treated by interrupted stages of the replication process - Oseltamivir and Zanamivir - structure and action - HIV and AIDS - Treatment of HIV and AIDS Environmental impacts of Biochemistry - Effects of PACs on the environment - Antibiotic Resistance - Nuclear Waste (both LLW and HLW) - Chlorinated solvent waste - Supercritical fluid waste - Green Chemistry - Biotechnologies in Green Chemistry Taxol - The Discovery of Paclitaxel - Isolation of Taxol - Structure of Taxol - Semi-synthetic production of Taxol - Clinical use of Taxol - The use of chiral auxiliaries to produce one enantiomer of Taxol - Confirmation of the purity of a single enantiomer drug - Thalidomide Nuclear Medicine - The use of radionuclides in medicine - Types of ionising radiation - Radiotherapy - Radioactive Decay - Targeted alpha therapy - Boron neutron capture therapy - Use of gamma emitters in radiotherapy - Radiodiagnostics - Positron Emission Tomography - Use of Technetium-99m - Half life and decay constant calculations - Magnetic Resonance Imaging Drug Detection and Analysis - Worked example of the identification of aspirin by NMR, IR and Mass Spectrometry - Worked example of the identification of an unknown compound from NMR, IR and Mass Spectrometry - Extraction and purification of organic products - Worked example of hormone concentration using partition coefficients - How polarity affects the partition coefficients - Raoult´s Law - Fractional Distillation - Drug detection in sports - Drug detection in forensic science - Chemistry of breathalyzer tests - HPLC and Gas chromatography Introduction to Biochemistry - Metabolism - Biochemical reactions in terms of oxidation and reduction - Respiration - Photosynthesis - Hydrolysis and Condensation reactions Proteins - 2 amino acids and their behaviour as zwitterions - Gel electrophoresis - Paper chromatography - Peptides - Hydrolysis of peptides - Proteins - primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures - Acid-base properties of amino acids and proteins - Acid-base buffers - Enzymes - Induced fit theory - Non competitive and competitive inhibition - The Michaelis-Menten equation - Protein Assays Lipids - Fatty acids - Triglycerides - Calculating the iodine number - Hydrolysis of triglycerides - Rancidity of fats - Energy values of fats - Phospholipids - Steroids (including cholesterol) - Sex hormones - Anabolic steroids Carbohydrates - Monosaccharides - Reducing sugars - Disaccharides - Polysaccharides - Starch, glycogen and cellulose Vitamins - Preventing deficiencies - Water and fat solubilities of vitamins - Vitamin A - Vitamin C - Vitamin D - Decomposition of vitamins Environmental Impacts of Biochemistry - Xenobiotics - Metabolism of xenobiotics - DDT - PCBs - Heavy metal toxicity - Pharmaceutically active compounds and detergents - Host-guest complexes - Polymers - Green Chemistry Proteins - 2 amino acids and their behaviour as zwitterions - Gel electrophoresis - Paper chromatography - Peptides - Hydrolysis of peptides - Proteins - primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures - Acid-base properties of amino acids and proteins - Acid-base buffers - Enzymes - Induced fit theory - Non competitive and competitive inhibition - The Michaelis-Menten equation - Protein Assays Nucleic Acids - Nucleic Acids - Nitrogeneous Bases and Nucleotides - ATP - The structure of DNA - DNA profiling - DNA replication - Transcription - Genetic Engineering Biological Pigments - Coloured compounds and biological pigments - Carotenes - Porphyrins - Haemoglobin - Factors affceting oxygen uptake in haemoglobin - Foetal haemoglobin - Cytochromes - Chlorophyll - Anthocyanins - Melanin Stereochemistry in Biomolecules - Stereoisomerism - 2-amino acids - Fischer and CORN projections - Stereochemistry in Carbohydrates - Stereochemistry cyclic forms of monosaccharides - Stereochemistry in cellulose - Stereochemistry in fatty acids - Stereochemistry in retinal and vision chemistry
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Biochemistry and Medicinal Chemistry - Standard Level

Biochemistry and Medicinal Chemistry - Standard Level

These PowerPoints were planned as part of the Standard Level IB schemes of work on Biochemistry and Medicinal Chemistry, and covers the necessary content for the all of the Standard Level units. It would also be suitable for other post-16 courses. It includes 12 full PowerPoints, along with student versions to use as notes, which have spaces for the students to add in missing information and activities for them to complete. It also includes exam questions for practice or assessment purposes Topics covered are: Pharmaceutical Products and Drug Design - Routes of drug administration - Theraputic Effects of Drugs - The Placebo Effect - Side Effects - Calculation of the Therapeutic Index - The Therapeutic Window - Bioavailability - Tolerance and Addiction - Drug Action - Drug Development by both Drug Design and Drug Discovery Aspirin and Penicillin - History of Aspirin - Method of Producing Aspirin - Calculating the % Yield of Aspirin produced from Salicyclic Acid - Effects of Aspirin - Soluble Aspirin - Development of Penicillin - Structure of Penicllin - How Penicillin Works - Antibiotic Resistance Opiates - Morphine: Structure and action; side effects; withdrawal - How opiates cross the blood-brain barrier - Diamorphine pH regulation of the stomach - The need for stomach acid - pH calculations to determine the concentration of acid in the stomach - Antacids: equations for their reactions with stomach acid; side effects; calculation of quantity of acid neutralised - Regulation of acid production using both H2-histamine receptor blockers (Zantac) and proton pump inhibitors (Omeprazole and Esomeprazole) - Acid-base buffers: definition and calculations - Hydrogencarbonate and carbonate buffers Antivirals - The differences between viruses and bacteria - The structure of viruses - How viruses reproduce and replicate - How viruses are treated by interrupted stages of the replication process - Oseltamivir and Zanamivir - structure and action - HIV and AIDS - Treatment of HIV and AIDS Environmental impacts of Biochemistry - Effects of PACs on the environment - Antibiotic Resistance - Nuclear Waste (both LLW and HLW) - Chlorinated solvent waste - Supercritical fluid waste - Green Chemistry - Biotechnologies in Green Chemistry Introduction to Biochemistry - Metabolism - Biochemical reactions in terms of oxidation and reduction - Respiration - Photosynthesis - Hydrolysis and Condensation reactions Proteins - 2 amino acids and their behaviour as zwitterions - Gel electrophoresis - Paper chromatography - Peptides - Hydrolysis of peptides - Proteins - primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures - Acid-base properties of amino acids and proteins - Acid-base buffers - Enzymes - Induced fit theory - Non competitive and competitive inhibition - The Michaelis-Menten equation - Protein Assays Lipids - Fatty acids - Triglycerides - Calculating the iodine number - Hydrolysis of triglycerides - Rancidity of fats - Energy values of fats - Phospholipids - Steroids (including cholesterol) - Sex hormones - Anabolic steroids Carbohydrates - Monosaccharides - Reducing sugars - Disaccharides - Polysaccharides - Starch, glycogen and cellulose Vitamins - Preventing deficiencies - Water and fat solubilities of vitamins - Vitamin A - Vitamin C - Vitamin D - Decomposition of vitamins Environmental Impacts of Biochemistry - Xenobiotics - Metabolism of xenobiotics - DDT - PCBs - Heavy metal toxicity - Pharmaceutically active compounds and detergents - Host-guest complexes - Polymers - Green Chemistry
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Biochemistry - Standard and Higher Level

Biochemistry - Standard and Higher Level

These 9 PowerPoints were planned as part of the IB schemes of work on Biochemistry, and covers the necessary content for the all of the Standard and Higher Level units. It would also be suitable for other post-16 courses. It includes 9 full PowerPoints, along with student versions to use as notes, which have spaces for the students to add in missing information and activities for them to complete. It also includes exam questions for practice or assessment purposes Topics covered are: Introduction to Biochemistry - Metabolism - Biochemical reactions in terms of oxidation and reduction - Respiration - Photosynthesis - Hydrolysis and Condensation reactions Proteins - 2 amino acids and their behaviour as zwitterions - Gel electrophoresis - Paper chromatography - Peptides - Hydrolysis of peptides - Proteins - primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures - Acid-base properties of amino acids and proteins - Acid-base buffers - Enzymes - Induced fit theory - Non competitive and competitive inhibition - The Michaelis-Menten equation - Protein Assays Lipids - Fatty acids - Triglycerides - Calculating the iodine number - Hydrolysis of triglycerides - Rancidity of fats - Energy values of fats - Phospholipids - Steroids (including cholesterol) - Sex hormones - Anabolic steroids Carbohydrates - Monosaccharides - Reducing sugars - Disaccharides - Polysaccharides - Starch, glycogen and cellulose Vitamins - Preventing deficiencies - Water and fat solubilities of vitamins - Vitamin A - Vitamin C - Vitamin D - Decomposition of vitamins Environmental Impacts of Biochemistry - Xenobiotics - Metabolism of xenobiotics - DDT - PCBs - Heavy metal toxicity - Pharmaceutically active compounds and detergents - Host-guest complexes - Polymers - Green Chemistry Proteins - 2 amino acids and their behaviour as zwitterions - Gel electrophoresis - Paper chromatography - Peptides - Hydrolysis of peptides - Proteins - primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures - Acid-base properties of amino acids and proteins - Acid-base buffers - Enzymes - Induced fit theory - Non competitive and competitive inhibition - The Michaelis-Menten equation - Protein Assays Nucleic Acids - Nucleic Acids - Nitrogeneous Bases and Nucleotides - ATP - The structure of DNA - DNA profiling - DNA replication - Transcription - Genetic Engineering Biological Pigments - Coloured compounds and biological pigments - Carotenes - Porphyrins - Haemoglobin - Factors affceting oxygen uptake in haemoglobin - Foetal haemoglobin - Cytochromes - Chlorophyll - Anthocyanins - Melanin Stereochemistry in Biomolecules - Stereoisomerism - 2-amino acids - Fischer and CORN projections - Stereochemistry in Carbohydrates - Stereochemistry cyclic forms of monosaccharides - Stereochemistry in cellulose - Stereochemistry in fatty acids - Stereochemistry in retinal and vision chemistry
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Drug Detection and Analysis

Drug Detection and Analysis

This PowerPoint was planned as part of the Higher Level IB scheme of work on Medicinal Chemistry, and covers the necessary content for the D.9 section. It would also be suitable for other post-16 courses. Included are the fully completed PowerPoint and a student version of the PowerPoint with sections to complete independently. Topics covered include: - Worked example of the identification of aspirin by NMR, IR and Mass Spectrometry - Worked example of the identification of an unknown compound from NMR, IR and Mass Spectrometry - Extraction and purification of organic products - Worked example of hormone concentration using partition coefficients - How polarity affects the partition coefficients - Raoult´s Law - Fractional Distillation - Drug detection in sports - Drug detection in forensic science - Chemistry of breathalyzer tests - HPLC and Gas chromatography
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Medicinal Chemistry - Standard Level

Medicinal Chemistry - Standard Level

This unit was planned as part of the Chemistry IB Option D - Medicinal Chemistry scheme of work, and covers all the topics at SL. It would also be suitable for other schemes of work. It includes 6 full PowerPoints, along with student versions to use as notes, which have spaces for the students to add in missing information and activities for them to complete. It also includes exam questions for practice or assessment purposes Topics covered are: Pharmaceutical Products and Drug Design - Routes of drug administration - Theraputic Effects of Drugs - The Placebo Effect - Side Effects - Calculation of the Therapeutic Index - The Therapeutic Window - Bioavailability - Tolerance and Addiction - Drug Action - Drug Development by both Drug Design and Drug Discovery Aspirin and Penicillin - History of Aspirin - Method of Producing Aspirin - Calculating the % Yield of Aspirin produced from Salicyclic Acid - Effects of Aspirin - Soluble Aspirin - Development of Penicillin - Structure of Penicllin - How Penicillin Works - Antibiotic Resistance Opiates - Morphine: Structure and action; side effects; withdrawal - How opiates cross the blood-brain barrier - Diamorphine pH regulation of the stomach - The need for stomach acid - pH calculations to determine the concentration of acid in the stomach - Antacids: equations for their reactions with stomach acid; side effects; calculation of quantity of acid neutralised - Regulation of acid production using both H2-histamine receptor blockers (Zantac) and proton pump inhibitors (Omeprazole and Esomeprazole) - Acid-base buffers: definition and calculations - Hydrogencarbonate and carbonate buffers Antivirals - The differences between viruses and bacteria - The structure of viruses - How viruses reproduce and replicate - How viruses are treated by interrupted stages of the replication process - Oseltamivir and Zanamivir - structure and action - HIV and AIDS - Treatment of HIV and AIDS Environmental impacts of Biochemistry - Effects of PACs on the environment - Antibiotic Resistance - Nuclear Waste (both LLW and HLW) - Chlorinated solvent waste - Supercritical fluid waste - Green Chemistry - Biotechnologies in Green Chemistry
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Biochemistry - Standard Level

Biochemistry - Standard Level

This unit was planned as part of the Chemistry IB Option B - Biochemistry scheme of work, and covers all the topics at SL. It would also be suitable for other schemes of work. It includes 6 full PowerPoints, along with student versions to use as notes, which have spaces for the students to add in missing information and activities for them to complete. It also includes exam questions for practice or assessment purposes Topics covered are: Introduction to Biochemistry - Metabolism - Biochemical reactions in terms of oxidation and reduction - Respiration - Photosynthesis - Hydrolysis and Condensation reactions Proteins - 2 amino acids and their behaviour as zwitterions - Gel electrophoresis - Paper chromatography - Peptides - Hydrolysis of peptides - Proteins - primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures - Acid-base properties of amino acids and proteins - Acid-base buffers - Enzymes - Induced fit theory - Non competitive and competitive inhibition - The Michaelis-Menten equation - Protein Assays Lipids - Fatty acids - Triglycerides - Calculating the iodine number - Hydrolysis of triglycerides - Rancidity of fats - Energy values of fats - Phospholipids - Steroids (including cholesterol) - Sex hormones - Anabolic steroids Carbohydrates - Monosaccharides - Reducing sugars - Disaccharides - Polysaccharides - Starch, glycogen and cellulose Vitamins - Preventing deficiencies - Water and fat solubilities of vitamins - Vitamin A - Vitamin C - Vitamin D - Decomposition of vitamins Environmental Impacts of Biochemistry - Xenobiotics - Metabolism of xenobiotics - DDT - PCBs - Heavy metal toxicity - Pharmaceutically active compounds and detergents - Host-guest complexes - Polymers - Green Chemistry
caverre
Biochemistry - Higher Level

Biochemistry - Higher Level

This unit was planned as part of the Chemistry IB Option B - Biochemistry scheme of work, and covers all the topics at HL. It would also be suitable for other schemes of work. It includes 4 full PowerPoints, along with student versions to use as notes, which have spaces for the students to add in missing information and activities for them to complete. It also includes exam questions for practice or assessment purposes Topics covered are: Proteins - 2 amino acids and their behaviour as zwitterions - Gel electrophoresis - Paper chromatography - Peptides - Hydrolysis of peptides - Proteins - primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures - Acid-base properties of amino acids and proteins - Acid-base buffers - Enzymes - Induced fit theory - Non competitive and competitive inhibition - The Michaelis-Menten equation - Protein Assays Nucleic Acids - Nucleic Acids - Nitrogeneous Bases and Nucleotides - ATP - The structure of DNA - DNA profiling - DNA replication - Transcription - Genetic Engineering Biological Pigments - Coloured compounds and biological pigments - Carotenes - Porphyrins - Haemoglobin - Factors affceting oxygen uptake in haemoglobin - Foetal haemoglobin - Cytochromes - Chlorophyll - Anthocyanins - Melanin Stereochemistry in Biomolecules - Stereoisomerism - 2-amino acids - Fischer and CORN projections - Stereochemistry in Carbohydrates - Stereochemistry cyclic forms of monosaccharides - Stereochemistry in cellulose - Stereochemistry in fatty acids - Stereochemistry in retinal and vision chemistry
caverre