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Caverre's Shop

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Predominately a Chemistry teacher, although I dabble with Biology and Physics too. Most of my schemes of work were planned for either AQA or iGCSE schemes of work at KS4 and the IB at KS5 (although I have no official affiliation with the IB)

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Predominately a Chemistry teacher, although I dabble with Biology and Physics too. Most of my schemes of work were planned for either AQA or iGCSE schemes of work at KS4 and the IB at KS5 (although I have no official affiliation with the IB)
Energy, Kinetics and Equilbria
caverrecaverre

Energy, Kinetics and Equilbria

4 Resources
These PowerPoints were planned as part of the IB schemes of work on Energy, Kinetics and Equilibria They cover the necessary content for both the Standard and Higher Level topics. They would also be suitable for other post-16 courses. Included are fully completed PowerPoints, student versions of the PowerPoints with sections to complete independently and some exam style questions. Topics covered include: - The difference between heat and temperature - Endothermic and Exothermic reactions - Stability and enthalpy changes - Standard enthalpy change of reaction (ΔHΘr) - Measuring Standard enthalpy change of combustion (ΔHΘc) including calculations - Measuring enthalpy changes in solution including calculations - Hess´Law - Standard Enthalpy Change of Formation (ΔHΘf) - Bond Enthalpies and Average Bond Enthalpies - Born Haber Cycles - Comparison of Lattice Enthalpies - Dissolving Ionic Substances - Hydration Enthalpies - Spontaneity and Disorder - Entropy - How to predict the sign of an entropy change - Entropy across period 2 - Standard Entropy Change: ΔSθ - Predicting whether a reaction will be spontaneous - Calculating ΔSθ Universe - Gibbs Free Energy - At what temperature does a reaction become feasible? - Gibbs Free Energy and Equilibrium - What is rate of reaction? - Methods of measuring the rate of reaction - Collision Theory - The effect of temperature, concentration, pressure, surface area and catalysts on the rate of reaction - Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution curves - The effect of temperature on Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution curves - The rate constant and rate equation - Determining the order of reaction from experimental data - Characteristics of 0, 1st and 2nd order reactions - Using reaction mechanisms to identify the rate determining step - Using the rate determining step to determine the reaction mechanism of a reaction - Mechanisms of reactions involving catalysts - The Arrenhius Equation - Determining the activation energy of a reaction via line of best fit and equation methods - Effect of activation energy on the rate of reaction - Effect of a catalyst on the Arrenhius equation - The difference between reversible reactions and equilibria - Dynamic equilibrium and the characteristic of the equilibrium state - Physical equlibria - What is meant by the term ´position of equilibrium´ - Le Chatelier´s Principle - Effect of temperature on the position of equilibrium - Effect of pressure on the position of equilibrium - Effect of concentration on the position of equilibrium - Effect of a catalyst on the position of equilibrium - The General Equilibrium Law - Calculating the equilibrium constant - The reaction quotient - Effect of changing reaction conditions on Kc - Calculating the equilibrium constant from the number of moles of reaction components - Calculating the concentrations of reaction components from the equilibrium constant - Explaining the effect of changes in concentration on Kc - Explaining the effect of changes in pressure on Kc - The relationship between equilibrium and Gibbs Free Energy - Calculating Kp
Entropy
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Entropy

(0)
This 50 slide PowerPoint was planned as part of the IB schemes of work on Energy. They would also be suitable for other post-16 courses. Included are fully completed PowerPoints including many examples, student versions of the PowerPoints with sections to complete independently and some exam style questions. Topics covered include: - Spontaneity and Disorder - Entropy - How to predict the sign of an entropy change - Entropy across period 2 - Standard Entropy Change: ΔSθ - Predicting whether a reaction will be spontaneous - Calculating ΔSθ Universe - Gibbs Free Energy - At what temperature does a reaction become feasible? - Gibbs Free Energy and Equilibrium
Energy Changes and Hess´ Law
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Energy Changes and Hess´ Law

(0)
These 3 PowerPoints were planned as part of the IB schemes of work on Energy. They would also be suitable for other post-16 courses. Included are fully completed PowerPoints, student versions of the PowerPoints with sections to complete independently and some exam style questions. Topics covered include: - The difference between heat and temperature - Endothermic and Exothermic reactions - Stability and enthalpy changes - Standard enthalpy change of reaction (ΔHΘr) - Measuring Standard enthalpy change of combustion (ΔHΘc) including calculations - Measuring enthalpy changes in solution including calculations - Hess´Law - Standard Enthalpy Change of Formation (ΔHΘf) - Bond Enthalpies and Average Bond Enthalpies - Born Haber Cycles - Comparison of Lattice Enthalpies - Dissolving Ionic Substances - Hydration Enthalpies
Atomic Structure, Periodicity and Structure and Bonding
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Atomic Structure, Periodicity and Structure and Bonding

4 Resources
These PowerPoints were planned as part of the IB schemes of work on Atomic Structure, Periodicity (including transition metal chemistry and coloured complexes) and Structure and Bonding. They cover the necessary content for both the Standard and Higher Level topics. They would also be suitable for other post-16 courses. Included are fully completed PowerPoints, student versions of the PowerPoints with sections to complete independently and some exam style questions.
Structure and Bonding
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Structure and Bonding

(0)
These PowerPoints were planned as part of the IB scheme of work on Structure and Bonding and cover the necessary content for both the Standard and Higher Level topics. They would also be suitable for other post-16 courses. Included are fully completed PowerPoints, student versions of the PowerPoints with sections to complete independently and some exam style questions. Topics included are: Ionic Bonding What is ionic bonding? Common positive and negative ions Working out the formula of ionic compounds Giant ionic lattices Properties of ionic substances Covalent Bonding What is covalent bonding? How to draw Lewis structures How to tell if a substance will be ionic or covalent The Octet rule and how it can be broken Coordinate bonds and compounds which contain them Resonance structures VSEPR theory Shapes of molecules with up to 6 bonding pairs Shapes of molecules with up to 6 bonding and lone pairs Giant covalent bonding - diamond, graphite and silica Intermolecular Bonding - London forces - Permanent dipole-permanent dipole forces - Permanent dipole-induced dipole forces - Hydrogen bonding - Solubility and intermolecular forces Metallic Bonding How do we describe a metallic structure? How to predict which metal will have the high melting point Properties of metals Properties of alloys Advanced covalent bonding, electron domains and molecular geometries Assigning formal charge Exceptions to the octet rule Formation of sigma and pi bonds The composition of single, double and triple bonds Resonance hybrids and delocalisation The structure of benzene - Kekule and delocalised Absorption of UV light in the atmosphere Catalysis of ozone depletion by CFCs and NOx gases Hybridisation sp3, sp2, sp hybridisation: how it happens, resulting shapes and how to identify molecules with each type of hybridisation.
Atomic Structure and Periodicity
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Atomic Structure and Periodicity

3 Resources
These PowerPoints were planned as part of the IB schemes of work on Atomic Structure and Periodicity (including transition metal chemistry and coloured complexes) and cover the necessary content for both the Standard and Higher Level topics. They would also be suitable for other post-16 courses. Included are fully completed PowerPoints, student versions of the PowerPoints with sections to complete independently and some exam style questions. Topics included are: - The structure of the atom - The development of the theory of atomic structure from Dalton-present day - Isotopes and their properties - Calculating the R.A.M. of an isotope - Calculating the % abundance of two isotopes, given the R.A.M. - Radioisotopes and their uses - The mass spectrometer: what it is used for, how it works, why it works and how to read mass spectra - How to calculate the energy of a photon of light - Atomic Emission Spectra - How to write full electronic configurations for elements up to the 4p orbital - How to write full electronic configurations for ions of the elements up to the 4p orbital - The convergence limit of energy in energy levels and how this links to First Ionisation Energy - Trends in First Ionisation Energy and how this provided evidence for the presence of orbitals - The development of the Periodic Table - The structure and arrangement of the Periodic Table - How metallic/non-metallic properties change as you go left to right across the periodic table - How atomic radius of elements changes across periods and down groups, and why this occurs - How ionic radius of ions changes across periods and down groups, and why this occurs - How first ionisation energies of elements changes across periods and down groups, and why this occurs - How electron affinity of elements changes across periods and down groups, and why this occurs - How electronegativity of elements changes across periods and down groups, and why this occurs - Properties and reactions of the Group I metals - Properties and reactions of the Group XVII non-metals - The acid-base character and reactions of the period 2 and 3 oxides - Electronic structures of the Transition Metals - Electronic structures of Transition Metal ions - The definition of a Transition Metal - Properties of Transition Metals - Variable oxidation states and the trend in First Ionisation Energies - Paramagnetism and Diamagnetism - Complex Ions - Transition Metals as catalysts - How colour occurs in compounds - Ligand Field Theory - Which Transition Metals are coloured and which are colourless and why - Factors which affect colour - including identity of the metal, charge on the metal and identity of the ligand
Atomic Structure
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Atomic Structure

(0)
These PowerPoints were planned as part of the IB scheme of work on Atomic Structure, and cover the necessary content for both the Standard and Higher Level topics. It would also be suitable for other post-16 courses. Included are fully completed PowerPoints, student versions of the PowerPoints with sections to complete independently and some exam style questions. Topics included are: - The structure of the atom - The development of the theory of atomic structure from Dalton-present day - Isotopes and their properties - Calculating the R.A.M. of an isotope - Calculating the % abundance of two isotopes, given the R.A.M. - Radioisotopes and their uses - The mass spectrometer: what it is used for, how it works, why it works and how to read mass spectra - How to calculate the energy of a photon of light - Atomic Emission Spectra - How to write full electronic configurations for elements up to the 4p orbital - How to write full electronic configurations for ions of the elements up to the 4p orbital - The convergence limit of energy in energy levels and how this links to First Ionisation Energy - Trends in First Ionisation Energy and how this provided evidence for the presence of orbitals
Transition Metal Chemistry and Coloured Complexes
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Transition Metal Chemistry and Coloured Complexes

(0)
These two PowerPoints were planned as part of the IB scheme of work on Periodicity, including Transition Metal Chemistry and the Chemistry behind coloured complexes, and cover the necessary content for both the Higher Level topics. It would also be suitable for other post-16 courses. Included are fully completed PowerPoints, student versions of the PowerPoints with sections to complete independently and some exam style questions. Topics included are: - Electronic structures of the Transition Metals - Electronic structures of Transition Metal ions - The definition of a Transition Metal - Properties of Transition Metals - Variable oxidation states and the trend in First Ionisation Energies - Paramagnetism and Diamagnetism - Complex Ions - Transition Metals as catalysts - How colour occurs in compounds - Ligand Field Theory - Which Transition Metals are coloured and which are colourless and why - Factors which affect colour - including identity of the metal, charge on the metal and identity of the ligand
Periodicity
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Periodicity

(0)
This 86 slide PowerPoint was planned as part of the IB scheme of work on Periodicity, and covers the necessary content for Standard Level topics. It would also be suitable for other post-16 courses. Included are the fully completed PowerPoint, a student version of the PowerPoint with sections to complete independently and some exam style questions. Topics included are: - The development of the Periodic Table - The structure and arrangement of the Periodic Table - How metallic/non-metallic properties change as you go left to right across the periodic table - How atomic radius of elements changes across periods and down groups, and why this occurs - How ionic radius of ions changes across periods and down groups, and why this occurs - How first ionisation energies of elements changes across periods and down groups, and why this occurs - How electron affinity of elements changes across periods and down groups, and why this occurs - How electronegativity of elements changes across periods and down groups, and why this occurs - Properties and reactions of the Group I metals - Properties and reactions of the Group XVII non-metals - The acid-base character and reactions of the period 2 and 3 oxides
Equilibria
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Equilibria

(0)
These two PowerPoints were planned as part of the IB scheme of work on Equilibria, and cover the necessary content for both the Standard and Higher Level topics. It would also be suitable for other post-16 courses. Included are fully completed PowerPoints, student versions of the PowerPoints with sections to complete independently and some exam style questions. Topics included are: - The difference between reversible reactions and equilibria - Dynamic equilibrium and the characteristic of the equilibrium state - Physical equlibria - What is meant by the term ´position of equilibrium´ - Le Chatelier´s Principle - Effect of temperature on the position of equilibrium - Effect of pressure on the position of equilibrium - Effect of concentration on the position of equilibrium - Effect of a catalyst on the position of equilibrium - The General Equilibrium Law - Calculating the equilibrium constant - The reaction quotient - Effect of changing reaction conditions on Kc - Calculating the equilibrium constant from the number of moles of reaction components - Calculating the concentrations of reaction components from the equilibrium constant - Explaining the effect of changes in concentration on Kc - Explaining the effect of changes in pressure on Kc - The relationship between equilibrium and Gibbs Free Energy - Calculating Kp
Rates of Reaction / Kinetics
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Rates of Reaction / Kinetics

(2)
These four PowerPoints were planned as part of the IB scheme of work on Kinetics, and cover the necessary content for both the Standard and Higher Level topics. It would also be suitable for other post-16 courses. Included are fully completed PowerPoints, student versions of the PowerPoints with sections to complete independently and some exam style questions. Topics included are: - What is rate of reaction? - Methods of measuring the rate of reaction - Collision Theory - The effect of temperature, concentration, pressure, surface area and catalysts on the rate of reaction - Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution curves - The effect of temperature on Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution curves - The rate constant and rate equation - Determining the order of reaction from experimental data - Characteristics of 0, 1st and 2nd order reactions - Using reaction mechanisms to identify the rate determining step - Using the rate determining step to determine the reaction mechanism of a reaction - Mechanisms of reactions involving catalysts - The Arrenhius Equation - Determining the activation energy of a reaction via line of best fit and equation methods - Effect of activation energy on the rate of reaction - Effect of a catalyst on the Arrenhius equation
Biochemistry - Standard and Higher Level
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Biochemistry - Standard and Higher Level

9 Resources
These 9 PowerPoints were planned as part of the IB schemes of work on Biochemistry, and covers the necessary content for the all of the Standard and Higher Level units. It would also be suitable for other post-16 courses. It includes 9 full PowerPoints, along with student versions to use as notes, which have spaces for the students to add in missing information and activities for them to complete. It also includes exam questions for practice or assessment purposes Topics covered are: Introduction to Biochemistry - Metabolism - Biochemical reactions in terms of oxidation and reduction - Respiration - Photosynthesis - Hydrolysis and Condensation reactions Proteins - 2 amino acids and their behaviour as zwitterions - Gel electrophoresis - Paper chromatography - Peptides - Hydrolysis of peptides - Proteins - primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures - Acid-base properties of amino acids and proteins - Acid-base buffers - Enzymes - Induced fit theory - Non competitive and competitive inhibition - The Michaelis-Menten equation - Protein Assays Lipids - Fatty acids - Triglycerides - Calculating the iodine number - Hydrolysis of triglycerides - Rancidity of fats - Energy values of fats - Phospholipids - Steroids (including cholesterol) - Sex hormones - Anabolic steroids Carbohydrates - Monosaccharides - Reducing sugars - Disaccharides - Polysaccharides - Starch, glycogen and cellulose Vitamins - Preventing deficiencies - Water and fat solubilities of vitamins - Vitamin A - Vitamin C - Vitamin D - Decomposition of vitamins Environmental Impacts of Biochemistry - Xenobiotics - Metabolism of xenobiotics - DDT - PCBs - Heavy metal toxicity - Pharmaceutically active compounds and detergents - Host-guest complexes - Polymers - Green Chemistry Proteins - 2 amino acids and their behaviour as zwitterions - Gel electrophoresis - Paper chromatography - Peptides - Hydrolysis of peptides - Proteins - primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures - Acid-base properties of amino acids and proteins - Acid-base buffers - Enzymes - Induced fit theory - Non competitive and competitive inhibition - The Michaelis-Menten equation - Protein Assays Nucleic Acids - Nucleic Acids - Nitrogeneous Bases and Nucleotides - ATP - The structure of DNA - DNA profiling - DNA replication - Transcription - Genetic Engineering Biological Pigments - Coloured compounds and biological pigments - Carotenes - Porphyrins - Haemoglobin - Factors affceting oxygen uptake in haemoglobin - Foetal haemoglobin - Cytochromes - Chlorophyll - Anthocyanins - Melanin Stereochemistry in Biomolecules - Stereoisomerism - 2-amino acids - Fischer and CORN projections - Stereochemistry in Carbohydrates - Stereochemistry cyclic forms of monosaccharides - Stereochemistry in cellulose - Stereochemistry in fatty acids - Stereochemistry in retinal and vision chemistry
Biochemistry and Medicinal Chemistry - Standard and Higher Level
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Biochemistry and Medicinal Chemistry - Standard and Higher Level

18 Resources
These 18 PowerPoints were planned as part of the IB schemes of work on Biochemistry and Medicinal Chemistry, and covers the necessary content for the all of the Standard and Higher Level units. It would also be suitable for other post-16 courses. It includes 18 full PowerPoints, along with student versions to use as notes, which have spaces for the students to add in missing information and activities for them to complete. It also includes exam questions for practice or assessment purposes Topics covered are: Pharmaceutical Products and Drug Design - Routes of drug administration - Theraputic Effects of Drugs - The Placebo Effect - Side Effects - Calculation of the Therapeutic Index - The Therapeutic Window - Bioavailability - Tolerance and Addiction - Drug Action - Drug Development by both Drug Design and Drug Discovery Aspirin and Penicillin - History of Aspirin - Method of Producing Aspirin - Calculating the % Yield of Aspirin produced from Salicyclic Acid - Effects of Aspirin - Soluble Aspirin - Development of Penicillin - Structure of Penicllin - How Penicillin Works - Antibiotic Resistance Opiates - Morphine: Structure and action; side effects; withdrawal - How opiates cross the blood-brain barrier - Diamorphine pH regulation of the stomach - The need for stomach acid - pH calculations to determine the concentration of acid in the stomach - Antacids: equations for their reactions with stomach acid; side effects; calculation of quantity of acid neutralised - Regulation of acid production using both H2-histamine receptor blockers (Zantac) and proton pump inhibitors (Omeprazole and Esomeprazole) - Acid-base buffers: definition and calculations - Hydrogencarbonate and carbonate buffers Antivirals - The differences between viruses and bacteria - The structure of viruses - How viruses reproduce and replicate - How viruses are treated by interrupted stages of the replication process - Oseltamivir and Zanamivir - structure and action - HIV and AIDS - Treatment of HIV and AIDS Environmental impacts of Biochemistry - Effects of PACs on the environment - Antibiotic Resistance - Nuclear Waste (both LLW and HLW) - Chlorinated solvent waste - Supercritical fluid waste - Green Chemistry - Biotechnologies in Green Chemistry Taxol - The Discovery of Paclitaxel - Isolation of Taxol - Structure of Taxol - Semi-synthetic production of Taxol - Clinical use of Taxol - The use of chiral auxiliaries to produce one enantiomer of Taxol - Confirmation of the purity of a single enantiomer drug - Thalidomide Nuclear Medicine - The use of radionuclides in medicine - Types of ionising radiation - Radiotherapy - Radioactive Decay - Targeted alpha therapy - Boron neutron capture therapy - Use of gamma emitters in radiotherapy - Radiodiagnostics - Positron Emission Tomography - Use of Technetium-99m - Half life and decay constant calculations - Magnetic Resonance Imaging Drug Detection and Analysis - Worked example of the identification of aspirin by NMR, IR and Mass Spectrometry - Worked example of the identification of an unknown compound from NMR, IR and Mass Spectrometry - Extraction and purification of organic products - Worked example of hormone concentration using partition coefficients - How polarity affects the partition coefficients - Raoult´s Law - Fractional Distillation - Drug detection in sports - Drug detection in forensic science - Chemistry of breathalyzer tests - HPLC and Gas chromatography Introduction to Biochemistry - Metabolism - Biochemical reactions in terms of oxidation and reduction - Respiration - Photosynthesis - Hydrolysis and Condensation reactions Proteins - 2 amino acids and their behaviour as zwitterions - Gel electrophoresis - Paper chromatography - Peptides - Hydrolysis of peptides - Proteins - primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures - Acid-base properties of amino acids and proteins - Acid-base buffers - Enzymes - Induced fit theory - Non competitive and competitive inhibition - The Michaelis-Menten equation - Protein Assays Lipids - Fatty acids - Triglycerides - Calculating the iodine number - Hydrolysis of triglycerides - Rancidity of fats - Energy values of fats - Phospholipids - Steroids (including cholesterol) - Sex hormones - Anabolic steroids Carbohydrates - Monosaccharides - Reducing sugars - Disaccharides - Polysaccharides - Starch, glycogen and cellulose Vitamins - Preventing deficiencies - Water and fat solubilities of vitamins - Vitamin A - Vitamin C - Vitamin D - Decomposition of vitamins Environmental Impacts of Biochemistry - Xenobiotics - Metabolism of xenobiotics - DDT - PCBs - Heavy metal toxicity - Pharmaceutically active compounds and detergents - Host-guest complexes - Polymers - Green Chemistry Proteins - 2 amino acids and their behaviour as zwitterions - Gel electrophoresis - Paper chromatography - Peptides - Hydrolysis of peptides - Proteins - primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures - Acid-base properties of amino acids and proteins - Acid-base buffers - Enzymes - Induced fit theory - Non competitive and competitive inhibition - The Michaelis-Menten equation - Protein Assays Nucleic Acids - Nucleic Acids - Nitrogeneous Bases and Nucleotides - ATP - The structure of DNA - DNA profiling - DNA replication - Transcription - Genetic Engineering Biological Pigments - Coloured compounds and biological pigments - Carotenes - Porphyrins - Haemoglobin - Factors affceting oxygen uptake in haemoglobin - Foetal haemoglobin - Cytochromes - Chlorophyll - Anthocyanins - Melanin Stereochemistry in Biomolecules - Stereoisomerism - 2-amino acids - Fischer and CORN projections - Stereochemistry in Carbohydrates - Stereochemistry cyclic forms of monosaccharides - Stereochemistry in cellulose - Stereochemistry in fatty acids - Stereochemistry in retinal and vision chemistry
Biochemistry and Medicinal Chemistry - Standard Level
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Biochemistry and Medicinal Chemistry - Standard Level

12 Resources
These PowerPoints were planned as part of the Standard Level IB schemes of work on Biochemistry and Medicinal Chemistry, and covers the necessary content for the all of the Standard Level units. It would also be suitable for other post-16 courses. It includes 12 full PowerPoints, along with student versions to use as notes, which have spaces for the students to add in missing information and activities for them to complete. It also includes exam questions for practice or assessment purposes Topics covered are: Pharmaceutical Products and Drug Design - Routes of drug administration - Theraputic Effects of Drugs - The Placebo Effect - Side Effects - Calculation of the Therapeutic Index - The Therapeutic Window - Bioavailability - Tolerance and Addiction - Drug Action - Drug Development by both Drug Design and Drug Discovery Aspirin and Penicillin - History of Aspirin - Method of Producing Aspirin - Calculating the % Yield of Aspirin produced from Salicyclic Acid - Effects of Aspirin - Soluble Aspirin - Development of Penicillin - Structure of Penicllin - How Penicillin Works - Antibiotic Resistance Opiates - Morphine: Structure and action; side effects; withdrawal - How opiates cross the blood-brain barrier - Diamorphine pH regulation of the stomach - The need for stomach acid - pH calculations to determine the concentration of acid in the stomach - Antacids: equations for their reactions with stomach acid; side effects; calculation of quantity of acid neutralised - Regulation of acid production using both H2-histamine receptor blockers (Zantac) and proton pump inhibitors (Omeprazole and Esomeprazole) - Acid-base buffers: definition and calculations - Hydrogencarbonate and carbonate buffers Antivirals - The differences between viruses and bacteria - The structure of viruses - How viruses reproduce and replicate - How viruses are treated by interrupted stages of the replication process - Oseltamivir and Zanamivir - structure and action - HIV and AIDS - Treatment of HIV and AIDS Environmental impacts of Biochemistry - Effects of PACs on the environment - Antibiotic Resistance - Nuclear Waste (both LLW and HLW) - Chlorinated solvent waste - Supercritical fluid waste - Green Chemistry - Biotechnologies in Green Chemistry Introduction to Biochemistry - Metabolism - Biochemical reactions in terms of oxidation and reduction - Respiration - Photosynthesis - Hydrolysis and Condensation reactions Proteins - 2 amino acids and their behaviour as zwitterions - Gel electrophoresis - Paper chromatography - Peptides - Hydrolysis of peptides - Proteins - primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures - Acid-base properties of amino acids and proteins - Acid-base buffers - Enzymes - Induced fit theory - Non competitive and competitive inhibition - The Michaelis-Menten equation - Protein Assays Lipids - Fatty acids - Triglycerides - Calculating the iodine number - Hydrolysis of triglycerides - Rancidity of fats - Energy values of fats - Phospholipids - Steroids (including cholesterol) - Sex hormones - Anabolic steroids Carbohydrates - Monosaccharides - Reducing sugars - Disaccharides - Polysaccharides - Starch, glycogen and cellulose Vitamins - Preventing deficiencies - Water and fat solubilities of vitamins - Vitamin A - Vitamin C - Vitamin D - Decomposition of vitamins Environmental Impacts of Biochemistry - Xenobiotics - Metabolism of xenobiotics - DDT - PCBs - Heavy metal toxicity - Pharmaceutically active compounds and detergents - Host-guest complexes - Polymers - Green Chemistry
Medicinal Chemistry - Standard and Higher Level
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Medicinal Chemistry - Standard and Higher Level

9 Resources
This PowerPoint was planned as part of the IB scheme of work on Medicinal Chemistry, and covers the necessary content for the all of the Standard and Higher Level units. It would also be suitable for other post-16 courses. It includes 9 full PowerPoints, along with student versions to use as notes, which have spaces for the students to add in missing information and activities for them to complete. It also includes exam questions for practice or assessment purposes Topics covered are: Pharmaceutical Products and Drug Design - Routes of drug administration - Theraputic Effects of Drugs - The Placebo Effect - Side Effects - Calculation of the Therapeutic Index - The Therapeutic Window - Bioavailability - Tolerance and Addiction - Drug Action - Drug Development by both Drug Design and Drug Discovery Aspirin and Penicillin - History of Aspirin - Method of Producing Aspirin - Calculating the % Yield of Aspirin produced from Salicyclic Acid - Effects of Aspirin - Soluble Aspirin - Development of Penicillin - Structure of Penicllin - How Penicillin Works - Antibiotic Resistance Opiates - Morphine: Structure and action; side effects; withdrawal - How opiates cross the blood-brain barrier - Diamorphine pH regulation of the stomach - The need for stomach acid - pH calculations to determine the concentration of acid in the stomach - Antacids: equations for their reactions with stomach acid; side effects; calculation of quantity of acid neutralised - Regulation of acid production using both H2-histamine receptor blockers (Zantac) and proton pump inhibitors (Omeprazole and Esomeprazole) - Acid-base buffers: definition and calculations - Hydrogencarbonate and carbonate buffers Antivirals - The differences between viruses and bacteria - The structure of viruses - How viruses reproduce and replicate - How viruses are treated by interrupted stages of the replication process - Oseltamivir and Zanamivir - structure and action - HIV and AIDS - Treatment of HIV and AIDS Environmental impacts of Biochemistry - Effects of PACs on the environment - Antibiotic Resistance - Nuclear Waste (both LLW and HLW) - Chlorinated solvent waste - Supercritical fluid waste - Green Chemistry - Biotechnologies in Green Chemistry Taxol - The Discovery of Paclitaxel - Isolation of Taxol - Structure of Taxol - Semi-synthetic production of Taxol - Clinical use of Taxol - The use of chiral auxiliaries to produce one enantiomer of Taxol - Confirmation of the purity of a single enantiomer drug - Thalidomide Nuclear Medicine - The use of radionuclides in medicine - Types of ionising radiation - Radiotherapy - Radioactive Decay - Targeted alpha therapy - Boron neutron capture therapy - Use of gamma emitters in radiotherapy - Radiodiagnostics - Positron Emission Tomography - Use of Technetium-99m - Half life and decay constant calculations - Magnetic Resonance Imaging Drug Detection and Analysis - Worked example of the identification of aspirin by NMR, IR and Mass Spectrometry - Worked example of the identification of an unknown compound from NMR, IR and Mass Spectrometry - Extraction and purification of organic products - Worked example of hormone concentration using partition coefficients - How polarity affects the partition coefficients - Raoult´s Law - Fractional Distillation - Drug detection in sports - Drug detection in forensic science - Chemistry of breathalyzer tests - HPLC and Gas chromatography
Medicinal Chemistry - Higher Level
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Medicinal Chemistry - Higher Level

3 Resources
This unit was planned as part of the Chemistry IB Option D - Medicinal Chemistry scheme of work, and covers all the topics at HL. It would also be suitable for other schemes of work. It includes 3 full PowerPoints, along with student versions to use as notes, which have spaces for the students to add in missing information and activities for them to complete. It also includes exam questions for practice or assessment purposes Topics covered are: Taxol - The Discovery of Paclitaxel - Isolation of Taxol - Structure of Taxol - Semi-synthetic production of Taxol - Clinical use of Taxol - The use of chiral auxiliaries to produce one enantiomer of Taxol - Confirmation of the purity of a single enantiomer drug - Thalidomide Nuclear Medicine - The use of radionuclides in medicine - Types of ionising radiation - Radiotherapy - Radioactive Decay - Targeted alpha therapy - Boron neutron capture therapy - Use of gamma emitters in radiotherapy - Radiodiagnostics - Positron Emission Tomography - Use of Technetium-99m - Half life and decay constant calculations - Magnetic Resonance Imaging Drug Detection and Analysis - Worked example of the identification of aspirin by NMR, IR and Mass Spectrometry - Worked example of the identification of an unknown compound from NMR, IR and Mass Spectrometry - Extraction and purification of organic products - Worked example of hormone concentration using partition coefficients - How polarity affects the partition coefficients - Raoult´s Law - Fractional Distillation - Drug detection in sports - Drug detection in forensic science - Chemistry of breathalyzer tests - HPLC and Gas chromatography
Drug Detection and Analysis
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Drug Detection and Analysis

(0)
This PowerPoint was planned as part of the Higher Level IB scheme of work on Medicinal Chemistry, and covers the necessary content for the D.9 section. It would also be suitable for other post-16 courses. Included are the fully completed PowerPoint and a student version of the PowerPoint with sections to complete independently. Topics covered include: - Worked example of the identification of aspirin by NMR, IR and Mass Spectrometry - Worked example of the identification of an unknown compound from NMR, IR and Mass Spectrometry - Extraction and purification of organic products - Worked example of hormone concentration using partition coefficients - How polarity affects the partition coefficients - Raoult´s Law - Fractional Distillation - Drug detection in sports - Drug detection in forensic science - Chemistry of breathalyzer tests - HPLC and Gas chromatography
Nuclear Medicine
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Nuclear Medicine

(0)
This PowerPoint was planned as part of the Higher Level IB scheme of work on Medicinal Chemistry, and covers the necessary content for the D.8 section. It would also be suitable for other post-16 courses. Included are the fully completed PowerPoint, a student version of the PowerPoint with sections to complete independently and some exam style questions, with markschemes. Topics covered include: - The use of radionuclides in medicine - Types of ionising radiation - Radiotherapy - Radioactive Decay - Targeted alpha therapy - Boron neutron capture therapy - Use of gamma emitters in radiotherapy - Radiodiagnostics - Positron Emission Tomography - Use of Technetium-99m - Half life and decay constant calculations - Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Taxol
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Taxol

(0)
This PowerPoint was planned as part of the Higher Level IB scheme of work on Medicinal Chemistry, and covers the necessary content for the D.7 section. It would also be suitable for other post-16 courses referring to Taxol or the use of chiral auxiliaries. Included are the fully completed PowerPoint, a student version of the PowerPoint with sections to complete independently and some exam style questions, with markschemes. Topics covered include: - The Discovery of Paclitaxel - Isolation of Taxol - Structure of Taxol - Semi-synthetic production of Taxol - Clinical use of Taxol - The use of chiral auxiliaries to produce one enantiomer of Taxol - Confirmation of the purity of a single enantiomer drug - Thalidomide
Biochemistry - Higher Level
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Biochemistry - Higher Level

4 Resources
This unit was planned as part of the Chemistry IB Option B - Biochemistry scheme of work, and covers all the topics at HL. It would also be suitable for other schemes of work. It includes 4 full PowerPoints, along with student versions to use as notes, which have spaces for the students to add in missing information and activities for them to complete. It also includes exam questions for practice or assessment purposes Topics covered are: Proteins - 2 amino acids and their behaviour as zwitterions - Gel electrophoresis - Paper chromatography - Peptides - Hydrolysis of peptides - Proteins - primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures - Acid-base properties of amino acids and proteins - Acid-base buffers - Enzymes - Induced fit theory - Non competitive and competitive inhibition - The Michaelis-Menten equation - Protein Assays Nucleic Acids - Nucleic Acids - Nitrogeneous Bases and Nucleotides - ATP - The structure of DNA - DNA profiling - DNA replication - Transcription - Genetic Engineering Biological Pigments - Coloured compounds and biological pigments - Carotenes - Porphyrins - Haemoglobin - Factors affceting oxygen uptake in haemoglobin - Foetal haemoglobin - Cytochromes - Chlorophyll - Anthocyanins - Melanin Stereochemistry in Biomolecules - Stereoisomerism - 2-amino acids - Fischer and CORN projections - Stereochemistry in Carbohydrates - Stereochemistry cyclic forms of monosaccharides - Stereochemistry in cellulose - Stereochemistry in fatty acids - Stereochemistry in retinal and vision chemistry