Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) was a Viennese trained in neurology. He developed his theory of psychoanalysis while treating patients suffering from hysteria. Hysterical patients were hypnotized and encouraged to talk about earlier events. As they talked about their conflicts, they sometimes experienced an out-pouring of emotions, which marked the end to their
This E-book on Impacts of Trauma in children is a developmentally oriented book rich in child development issues, the impact of trauma on development and functioning, and interventions directed at treating reactions to trauma are explored. Early education teachers and practitioners will find this book very useful.
The socio-cognitive theory is a learning theory that posits that people learn by watching what others do. It emphasizes that, if people are motivated to learn a particular behaviour, they could do so through clear observation.According to Albert Bandura people acquire complex behaviour through modeling. He explains behaviour in terms of a person’s interactions with the environment (either external or internal). Bandura stressed drat behaviour, cognition and the environment mutually influence each other, a process lie called reciprocal determination. For example, the children’s television watching habits (past environment) influences their interest or preferences (cognition or personal factor), which in turn determines the channel they select (behaviour).
Erik Erikson was a German psychologist who suffered serious identity crisis in his youthful years. His parents divorced when he was a young child and he stayed with his mother. He then concluded that a need for identity is a major aspect in life. He also felt that the influence of the society on the development of personality should not be underestimated.
Drug and substance abuse
A drug is a chemical compound that can alter the structure and functioning of the body. Psychoactive drugs affect the function of the brain, and most are considered illegal to use or possess. In content, the term ‘substance’ refer- to non-drug things like cigarettes and alcohol that can also alter the normal functioning of the body. Substance abuse is the overindulgence in and dependence of a drug or chemical leading to effects that arc detrimental to the individual’s physical and mental health, or the welfare of others. It is also a regular use of a drug or a substance other than for its accepted medical purpose, or in doses greater than those considered appropriate obligations, interpersonal conflicts, or legal problems. Substance refers to things like alcohol and cigarettes.
This article on corporate/company profile covers (i) questions to be used to gather information on profile development (ii) points to remember when preparing a profile (iii) elements of a corporate/companies profile (iv) importance of company profile and (v)samples of corporate/company profiles. Read on……………………………………………………………………………
This article covers (i) difference between a resume and curriculum vitae (ii) meaning of curriculum vitae and resume (iii) when to use a curriculum vitae or a resume(iv) tips of writing a curriculum vitae (v) what to include in a curriculum vitae (CV) (vi) what not to include in a CV, and (vii) samples of curriculum vitae. Read on………………………………………………………
This is a theory in psychology that was proposed by Abraham Maslow in 1943. Maslow believed that every human being has an intrinsically good nature. He believed a good environment should be encouraged as it allows a person to express his wishes and demands, helps them to make choices and offers the necessary materials and opportunities to satisfy their needs.
Changes in Power Relations between the Spouses
The traditional African family economy in which husbands were the chief breadwinners has collapsed. Instead, there is a gradual development of a wage earning family household in which both the husband and wife have to strive to earn income. Unfortunately, the transition to wage-earning households has occurred without corresponding shifts in power relations between the sexes.
Various theories that explain how children learn have been formulated. Teacher and subject centred teaching methods were mostly used in ancient times. Today however, many educational research scholars have come up with more appropriate teaching methods. Researchers in Child Developmental are of the opinion that the aspects of growth and development are interrelated and thus a child’ physical development will affect his/her socio-emotional as well as cognitive development and hence his/her learning. Knowledge of theoretical principles in child development and instructional methods will help us understand the stages through which a child passes and what he/she is capable of learning or doing.
• The particles constituting an atom are the electron, the proton, and the neutron.
• An atom is composed of two regions: the nucleus, which is in the center of the atom and contains protons and neutrons, and the outer region of the atom, which holds its electrons in orbit around the nucleus.
• Protons and neutrons have approximately the same mass, about 1.67 × 10-24 grams, which scientists define as one atomic mass unit (amu) or one Dalton.
• Each electron has a negative charge (-1) equal to the positive charge of a proton (+1).
• Neutrons are uncharged particles found within the nucleus.
• The periodic table is a table that logically organize all the known elements.
• Each row is named “period” where all of the elements have the same number of atomic orbitals.
• Each column
Chemists use theories of structure and bonding to explain the physical and chemical properties of materials. Analysis of structures shows that atoms can be arranged in a variety of ways, some of which are molecular while others are giant structures. Theories of bonding explain how atoms are held together in these structures. Scientists use this knowledge of structure and bonding to engineer new materials with desirable properties. The properties of these materials may offer new applications in a range of different technologies.
Categories of Genres of Literature
In this lecture we will start by defining what children’s literature is. Children’s literature is both fiction and non-fiction books written especially for children between 0 to 12 years. This definition excludes literature for teenagers. Generally, Children’s books are classified by the following genres:
Available literature shows that before the nineteenth century, there were very few books were especially written for children. Since those days, a lot of changes in attitudes towards early childhood and children’s development, along with the increased technology, have led to the development of children’s literature as a major industry. It is therefore hard to define to define what children’s literature is. There is no simple, straightforward definition of children’s literature that can be used with equal validity at different times and in different contexts to describe children’s literature. The definitions of ‘children’s literature has changed over time just like the concepts of ‘child’, and ‘childhood.
This article on how to prepare for an interview covers (i) tips for attending an interview (ii) what employers look for during the interview (iii) questions that are likely to be asked during the interview (iv) how to answer difficult questions during interview (v) how to handle difficult situations and challenging experience questions (v) handling the most challenging situations in your previous job (vi) handling salary questions (vii) handling strengths and weaknesses questions.