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I create resources for mathematics teaching based on the Singapore and Shanghai curriculum models for best practice. I will focus on the core principles of Intelligent Practice, Low-Threshold High-Ceiling tasks, fluency based activities and Problem Solving and Reasoning activities.

I create resources for mathematics teaching based on the Singapore and Shanghai curriculum models for best practice. I will focus on the core principles of Intelligent Practice, Low-Threshold High-Ceiling tasks, fluency based activities and Problem Solving and Reasoning activities.
Intelligent Practice: Fractions - Thirds (Free)
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Intelligent Practice: Fractions - Thirds (Free)

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This is the free sample version of the full Intelligent Practice programme developed for fractions, and comes complete with answers on a separate page. You can buy the full version of the Intelligent Practice: Fractions - Thirds booklet, complete with 33 pages, plus answers. The visual representations (BAR models) of the fractions aim to help children understand the concept of three ‘parts’ to a ‘whole’. Intelligent practice guides them through calculating one third, two thirds, and three thirds of the amount. The second section enables children to repeat this process for an amount that is 10 times greater, helping to reinforce place value understanding, and its effect on the fraction parts. The final section encourages children to reflect on the patterns they have noticed. Skilful questioning from the teacher will enable the children to identify, for example: Why the whole amounts used are always multiples of 3; Why the ‘parts’ in each section increase by the same amount each time; Why the ‘parts’ between sections are also 10x greater; Why every time the ‘whole’ increases by 3, each part increases by 1, etc.
Intelligent Practice: Fractions - Quarters (Free)
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Intelligent Practice: Fractions - Quarters (Free)

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This is the free sample version of the full Intelligent Practice programme developed for fractions, and comes complete with answers on a separate page. You can buy the full version of the Intelligent Practice: Fractions - Quarters booklet, complete with 25 pages, plus answers. The visual representations (BAR models) of the fractions aim to help children understand the concept of four ‘parts’ to a ‘whole’. Intelligent practice guides them through calculating one quarter, two quarters, three quarters and four quarters of the amount. The second section enables children to repeat this process for an amount that is 10 times greater, helping to reinforce place value understanding, and its effect on the fraction parts. The final section encourages children to reflect on the patterns they have noticed. Skilful questioning from the teacher will enable the children to identify, for example: Why the whole amounts used are always multiples of 4; Why the ‘parts’ in each section increase by the same amount each time; Why the ‘parts’ between sections are also 10x greater; Why every time the ‘whole’ increases by 4, each part increases by 1, etc.
Fluency: Bridging (+ 19 with Tens Frame)
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Fluency: Bridging (+ 19 with Tens Frame)

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Do you operate a ‘mastery’ classroom? Do you find it difficult to teach bridging method using visual resources? Look no further than the full set of fluency activities designed to allow children to develop the skills of bridging as an addition strategy using Numicon or Tens Frames. The full sets include blank spaces for children to record, an answer pack for demonstrating on the IWB, and an example question to start the teaching. Each set is divided into a specific addition focus (either adding 6, 7, 8, 9, 16, 17, 18, or 19). This activity is ideal for children in Key Stage 1 or 2. How could I use this activity? Our staff have used these fluency packs in two main ways: As a whole class teaching input, using the Example page to show strategy of partitioning the add focus visually, followed by whole class work through of the questions whilst on the Interactive Whiteboard. Individual booklets (printing 4 pages per sheet in the print settings) and allowing children to work through the booklet with at their own pace, or with a teacher or TA). How are the activities useful? In terms of developing real mastery amongst your students, it is important that they can: Answer simple addition problems quickly from memory, or by using calculation strategies rather than counting. This pack allows children to develop a long term memory of addition facts through the visual nature, whilst helping them to calculate through a bridging strategy. Manipulate numbers in different ways so that they can be confident in any addition scenario. This pack enables children to consider the most efficient methods of bridging. How do children develop more efficient methods? Encourage your children to recognise the different ways to manipulate the calculation. As an example, consider 6 + 7: Some children will automatically change this to 7 + 6 because they have been drilled into “put the largest number first”. For true mastery, children must be able to recognise that addition involves the sum of two addends, and therefore it doesn’t matter which one goes first. So, how do we teach this? Ask them to calculate (not count) the answer both ways around. What do they notice? For 6 + 7, we partition 7 into 4 and 3, because 6 + 4 = 10, and this is what we call bridging. For 7 + 6, we partition 6 into 3 and 3, because 7 + 3 = 10. In both examples the sum is still 13, but the partitions we created we different. So, which one is more efficient? The honest answer is, once we are fluent, they are both efficient. But, whilst we are still learning, most children will find it easier to do 6 + (4 + 3) for the simple reason that even numbers bonds to 10 are easier to remember. Your biggest challenge as a teacher using a mastery style, is to get the children to recognise this of their own accord through real reasoning in the classroom. That’s why these resources have been designed to visually show each calculation.
Fluency: Bridging (add 7 with Numicon)
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Fluency: Bridging (add 7 with Numicon)

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Do you operate a ‘mastery’ classroom? Do you find it difficult to teach bridging method using visual resources? Look no further than the full set of fluency activities designed to allow children to develop the skills of bridging as an addition strategy using Numicon or Tens Frames. The full sets include blank spaces for children to record, an answer pack for demonstrating on the IWB, and an example question to start the teaching. Each set is divided into a specific addition focus (either adding 6, 7, 8, 9, 16, 17, 18, or 19). This activity is ideal for children in Key Stage 1 or 2. How could I use this activity? Our staff have used these fluency packs in two main ways: As a whole class teaching input, using the Example page to show strategy of partitioning the add focus visually, followed by whole class work through of the questions whilst on the Interactive Whiteboard. Individual booklets (printing 4 pages per sheet in the print settings) and allowing children to work through the booklet with at their own pace, or with a teacher or TA). How are the activities useful? In terms of developing real mastery amongst your students, it is important that they can: Answer simple addition problems quickly from memory, or by using calculation strategies rather than counting. This pack allows children to develop a long term memory of addition facts through the visual nature, whilst helping them to calculate through a bridging strategy. Manipulate numbers in different ways so that they can be confident in any addition scenario. This pack enables children to consider the most efficient methods of bridging. How do children develop more efficient methods? Encourage your children to recognise the different ways to manipulate the calculation. As an example, consider 6 + 7: Some children will automatically change this to 7 + 6 because they have been drilled into “put the largest number first”. For true mastery, children must be able to recognise that addition involves the sum of two addends, and therefore it doesn’t matter which one goes first. So, how do we teach this? Ask them to calculate (not count) the answer both ways around. What do they notice? For 6 + 7, we partition 7 into 4 and 3, because 6 + 4 = 10, and this is what we call bridging. For 7 + 6, we partition 6 into 3 and 3, because 7 + 3 = 10. In both examples the sum is still 13, but the partitions we created we different. So, which one is more efficient? The honest answer is, once we are fluent, they are both efficient. But, whilst we are still learning, most children will find it easier to do 6 + (4 + 3) for the simple reason that even numbers bonds to 10 are easier to remember. Your biggest challenge as a teacher using a mastery style, is to get the children to recognise this of their own accord through real reasoning in the classroom. That’s why these resources have been designed to visually show each calculation.
Fluency: Bridging (add 6 with Numicon)
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Fluency: Bridging (add 6 with Numicon)

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Do you operate a ‘mastery’ classroom? Do you find it difficult to teach bridging method using visual resources? Look no further than the full set of fluency activities designed to allow children to develop the skills of bridging as an addition strategy using Numicon or Tens Frames. The full sets include blank spaces for children to record, an answer pack for demonstrating on the IWB, and an example question to start the teaching. Each set is divided into a specific addition focus (either adding 6, 7, 8, 9, 16, 17, 18, or 19). This activity is ideal for children in Key Stage 1 or 2. How could I use this activity? Our staff have used these fluency packs in two main ways: As a whole class teaching input, using the Example page to show strategy of partitioning the add focus visually, followed by whole class work through of the questions whilst on the Interactive Whiteboard. Individual booklets (printing 4 pages per sheet in the print settings) and allowing children to work through the booklet with at their own pace, or with a teacher or TA). How are the activities useful? In terms of developing real mastery amongst your students, it is important that they can: Answer simple addition problems quickly from memory, or by using calculation strategies rather than counting. This pack allows children to develop a long term memory of addition facts through the visual nature, whilst helping them to calculate through a bridging strategy. Manipulate numbers in different ways so that they can be confident in any addition scenario. This pack enables children to consider the most efficient methods of bridging. How do children develop more efficient methods? Encourage your children to recognise the different ways to manipulate the calculation. As an example, consider 6 + 7: Some children will automatically change this to 7 + 6 because they have been drilled into “put the largest number first”. For true mastery, children must be able to recognise that addition involves the sum of two addends, and therefore it doesn’t matter which one goes first. So, how do we teach this? Ask them to calculate (not count) the answer both ways around. What do they notice? For 6 + 7, we partition 7 into 4 and 3, because 6 + 4 = 10, and this is what we call bridging. For 7 + 6, we partition 6 into 3 and 3, because 7 + 3 = 10. In both examples the sum is still 13, but the partitions we created we different. So, which one is more efficient? The honest answer is, once we are fluent, they are both efficient. But, whilst we are still learning, most children will find it easier to do 6 + (4 + 3) for the simple reason that even numbers bonds to 10 are easier to remember. Your biggest challenge as a teacher using a mastery style, is to get the children to recognise this of their own accord through real reasoning in the classroom. That’s why these resources have been designed to visually show each calculation.
Fluency: Bridging (add 8 with Numicon)
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Fluency: Bridging (add 8 with Numicon)

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Do you operate a ‘mastery’ classroom? Do you find it difficult to teach bridging method using visual resources? Look no further than the full set of fluency activities designed to allow children to develop the skills of bridging as an addition strategy using Numicon or Tens Frames. The full sets include blank spaces for children to record, an answer pack for demonstrating on the IWB, and an example question to start the teaching. Each set is divided into a specific addition focus (either adding 6, 7, 8, 9, 16, 17, 18, or 19). This activity is ideal for children in Key Stage 1 or 2. How could I use this activity? Our staff have used these fluency packs in two main ways: As a whole class teaching input, using the Example page to show strategy of partitioning the add focus visually, followed by whole class work through of the questions whilst on the Interactive Whiteboard. Individual booklets (printing 4 pages per sheet in the print settings) and allowing children to work through the booklet with at their own pace, or with a teacher or TA). How are the activities useful? In terms of developing real mastery amongst your students, it is important that they can: Answer simple addition problems quickly from memory, or by using calculation strategies rather than counting. This pack allows children to develop a long term memory of addition facts through the visual nature, whilst helping them to calculate through a bridging strategy. Manipulate numbers in different ways so that they can be confident in any addition scenario. This pack enables children to consider the most efficient methods of bridging. How do children develop more efficient methods? Encourage your children to recognise the different ways to manipulate the calculation. As an example, consider 6 + 7: Some children will automatically change this to 7 + 6 because they have been drilled into “put the largest number first”. For true mastery, children must be able to recognise that addition involves the sum of two addends, and therefore it doesn’t matter which one goes first. So, how do we teach this? Ask them to calculate (not count) the answer both ways around. What do they notice? For 6 + 7, we partition 7 into 4 and 3, because 6 + 4 = 10, and this is what we call bridging. For 7 + 6, we partition 6 into 3 and 3, because 7 + 3 = 10. In both examples the sum is still 13, but the partitions we created we different. So, which one is more efficient? The honest answer is, once we are fluent, they are both efficient. But, whilst we are still learning, most children will find it easier to do 6 + (4 + 3) for the simple reason that even numbers bonds to 10 are easier to remember. Your biggest challenge as a teacher using a mastery style, is to get the children to recognise this of their own accord through real reasoning in the classroom. That’s why these resources have been designed to visually show each calculation.
Playing Safe - A 'Start the Day' Puzzle
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Playing Safe - A 'Start the Day' Puzzle

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NEW AND IMPROVED - NOW WITH 10 ACTIVTIES IN TWO DESIGNS Do your children need practice solving problems and puzzles? Do you need activities that specifically practise the areas of mathematics that often get neglected in our jam-packed curriculum? Then look no further than this ‘Start the Day’ activity pack involving compass directions and code-cracking. In this pack, there are 10 similar activities (each with teacher answers) in both PDF form and PowerPoint for easy sharing with your children on an interactive whiteboard. The activity is designed to encourage children to work systematically to find the correct route through the safe code to reach the key at the centre. Each button tells them how many spaces to move (1, 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6) and in which direction (North, East, South or West). Tips on how to deliver these activities: On the first occasion you use these activities, allow children a free run at solving the puzzle, perhaps with some very minor discussion around the compass directions; Allow children to talk through their strategies for finding solutions, encouraging pupil voice in both paired and whole-class discussions; If necessary (some children won’t find a way to solve the problem without a system), share a way to work backwards. For example, there is only one button which links to the key. Can we find it? There is only one button that links to that button (the one we just used to get to the key). Can we find it? Etc; Encourage children to think about what they did to make the problem smaller; Ask children how they could adapt the puzzle to make it easier, or more challenging (for example through fewer rows or columns, or through adding diagonal movements in the instructions - NE, SE, SW, NW); Use one activity per week over a half term to encourage regular revisiting of the content (directions) and strategies (working backwards); Have children create their own versions and send them to us to challenge our followers - Twitter: @UKExceED
Fluency: Bridging (add 9 with Numicon)
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Fluency: Bridging (add 9 with Numicon)

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Do you operate a ‘mastery’ classroom? Do you find it difficult to teach bridging method using visual resources? Look no further than the full set of fluency activities designed to allow children to develop the skills of bridging as an addition strategy using Numicon or Tens Frames. The full sets include blank spaces for children to record, an answer pack for demonstrating on the IWB, and an example question to start the teaching. Each set is divided into a specific addition focus (either adding 6, 7, 8, 9, 16, 17, 18, or 19). This activity is ideal for children in Key Stage 1 or 2. How could I use this activity? Our staff have used these fluency packs in two main ways: As a whole class teaching input, using the Example page to show strategy of partitioning the add focus visually, followed by whole class work through of the questions whilst on the Interactive Whiteboard. Individual booklets (printing 4 pages per sheet in the print settings) and allowing children to work through the booklet with at their own pace, or with a teacher or TA). How are the activities useful? In terms of developing real mastery amongst your students, it is important that they can: Answer simple addition problems quickly from memory, or by using calculation strategies rather than counting. This pack allows children to develop a long term memory of addition facts through the visual nature, whilst helping them to calculate through a bridging strategy. Manipulate numbers in different ways so that they can be confident in any addition scenario. This pack enables children to consider the most efficient methods of bridging. How do children develop more efficient methods? Encourage your children to recognise the different ways to manipulate the calculation. As an example, consider 6 + 7: Some children will automatically change this to 7 + 6 because they have been drilled into “put the largest number first”. For true mastery, children must be able to recognise that addition involves the sum of two addends, and therefore it doesn’t matter which one goes first. So, how do we teach this? Ask them to calculate (not count) the answer both ways around. What do they notice? For 6 + 7, we partition 7 into 4 and 3, because 6 + 4 = 10, and this is what we call bridging. For 7 + 6, we partition 6 into 3 and 3, because 7 + 3 = 10. In both examples the sum is still 13, but the partitions we created we different. So, which one is more efficient? The honest answer is, once we are fluent, they are both efficient. But, whilst we are still learning, most children will find it easier to do 6 + (4 + 3) for the simple reason that even numbers bonds to 10 are easier to remember. Your biggest challenge as a teacher using a mastery style, is to get the children to recognise this of their own accord through real reasoning in the classroom. That’s why these resources have been designed to visually show each calculation.
Daily Fluency - Add & Sub (Sample Set)
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Daily Fluency - Add & Sub (Sample Set)

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Do you operate a ‘mastery’ classroom? Do your students take too long to recall addition and subtraction facts, or worse, cannot recall them at all? Look no further than this Daily Fluency with Calculations booklet. This resource has been developed through a proven research-based approach. The sequence of sessions follows a specific sequence which helps children to build upon common techniques of calculation. For example, the first week is as follows: Day 1: Adding 9 Day 2: Subtracting 9 Day 3: Adding 11 Day 4: Subtracting 11 Day 5: A mixture of adding 9, 10 and 11. Each week follows a similar structure, with columns of questions conveniently colour coded to help children recognise how much of the session they manage to complete. Note: This is a free sample set to give you an insight into how the entire fluency pack works. The full Daily Fluency with Calculations booklet can be found here. For best results: Use the PDF file to create an A5 booklet; Teach the main strategy for each session using a whole class approach; Use a 3-minute timer to allow children to complete the page; Allow children to call out their name when they have finished, and tell them their time; Allow children to call out the answers in order afterwards as you mark as a whole class, discussing any difficulties or interesting patterns; Allow children to complete their own tracking charts at the end of each week, and bar chart on the back cover. This gives them a good feedback about how well they are performing, and also gives them ownership over the process. The power of this daily approach is truly remarkable, and will have your children recalling their number facts in no time. Most of our schools reprint this booklet and complete it a second and third time in order to maintain their rapid recall. This can be an important part of creating long term memory of the facts. Also supplied is a full answers booklet for you to check students answers when they call them out.
Playing Safe 'Start the Day' Puzzle (Free)
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Playing Safe 'Start the Day' Puzzle (Free)

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Do your children need practice solving problems and puzzles? Do you need activities that specifically practise the areas of mathematics that often get neglected in our jam-packed curriculum? Then look no further than this ‘Start the Day’ activity pack involving compass directions and code-cracking. In this pack there is one free sample activity from our full pack - Playing Safe: ‘Start the Day’ Puzzle, which has 10 similar activities (each with teacher answers) in both PDF form and PowerPoint for easy sharing with your children on an interactive whiteboard. The activity is designed to encourage children to work systematically to find the correct route through the safe code to reach the key at the centre. Each button tells them how many spaces to move (1, 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6) and in which direction (North, East, South or West). Tips on how to deliver these activities: On the first occasion you use these activities, allow children a free run at solving the puzzle, perhaps with some very minor discussion around the compass directions; Allow children to talk through their strategies for finding solutions, encouraging pupil voice in both paired and whole-class discussions; If necessary (some children won’t find a way to solve the problem without a system), share a way to work backwards. For example, there is only one button which links to the key. Can we find it? There is only one button that links to that button (the one we just used to get to the key). Can we find it? Etc; Encourage children to think about what they did to make the problem smaller; Ask children how they could adapt the puzzle to make it easier, or more challenging (for example through fewer rows or columns, or through adding diagonal movements in the instructions - NE, SE, SW, NW); Use two activities per week over a half term to encourage regular revisiting of the content (directions) and strategies (working backwards); Have children create their own versions and send them to us to challenge our followers - Twitter: @UKExceED
Sum Steps: 'Start the Day' reasoning addition problems (Free)
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Sum Steps: 'Start the Day' reasoning addition problems (Free)

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Do your children need practice solving problems and puzzles? Do you need activities that specifically practise reasoning with addition and subtraction? Then look no further than this ‘Start the Day’ activity pack. This is the free sample of the Sum Steps: ‘Start the Day’ reasoning addition problems full pack which has 5 similar activities (each with teacher answers) in PDF and PowerPoint form for easy printing and sharing with your children on an interactive whiteboard. The activity is designed to encourage children to work systematically to find the correct totals of each step in the pyramid. Children will be able to find some spaces as a direct result of some of the known numbers, with only one number in the bottom row remaining unknown. Children might choose to use a trial and improvement method for finding this unknown number, reasoning out their others answers based on their choices. Otherwise, children might use algebra to replace this unknown number with x. The answer pages provide both the full answer, and the stages involved in using algebra to enable teacher follow up during plenary or mini-plenary discussions. Tips on how to deliver these activities: On the first occasion you use these activities, allow children a free run at solving the puzzle, perhaps with some very minor discussion around the known numbers and how they might help; Allow children to talk through their strategies for finding solutions, encouraging pupil voice in both paired and whole-class discussions; If necessary (some children won’t find a way to solve the problem without a system), share a way to work backwards. For example, what piece of information helps us the most. Can we start from there? Why can’t a 5 go here? Etc; Encourage children to think about what they did to make the problem smaller; Ask children how they could adapt the puzzle to make it easier, or more challenging (for example through fewer clues, or fewer pyramid steps); Use one activity per week over a half term to encourage regular revisiting of the content (addition and subtraction) and strategies (working backwards/trial and improvement/algebra); Have children create their own versions and send them to us to challenge our followers - Twitter: @UKExceED
Maths Reasoning 'Start the Day' Bundle
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Maths Reasoning 'Start the Day' Bundle

3 Resources
A collection of 20 ‘Start the Day’ activities to support your children’s mathematics reasoning and problem solving skills whilst also developing their fluency in addition, subtraction, algebra and even compass directions.
Tricky Totals: Problem Solving 'Start the Day'
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Tricky Totals: Problem Solving 'Start the Day'

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Do your children need practice solving problems and puzzles? Do you need activities that specifically practise reasoning with addition and subtraction? Then look no further than this ‘Start the Day’ activity pack. This is the full pack which has 5 similar activities (each with teacher answers) in PDF form for easy printing and sharing with your children on an interactive whiteboard. The activity is designed to encourage children to work systematically to find the correct totals. The 3 x 3 grid uses the digits 1-9 only once. Three different sections are colour-coded to represent a sum total of that colour, and the smaller sum totals represent the 4 touching squares around it. Children are forced to reason throughout, for example that if two blue squares total 8, the paired numbers must be either 1 + 7, 2 + 6, 3 + 5 but not 4 + 4 because the digit 4 cannot be used twice. Tips on how to deliver these activities: On the first occasion you use these activities, allow children a free run at solving the puzzle, perhaps with some very minor discussion around the sum totals and how they might help; Allow children to use the digit cards 1-9 to physically manipulate their puzzle; Allow children to talk through their strategies for finding solutions, encouraging pupil voice in both paired and whole-class discussions; If necessary (some children won’t find a way to solve the problem without a system), share a way to work backwards. For example, what piece of information helps us the most. Can we start from there? Why can’t a 5 go here? Etc; Encourage children to think about what they did to make the problem smaller; Ask children how they could adapt the puzzle to make it easier, or more challenging (for example through fewer clues, or being able to use digits more than once); Use one activity per week over a half term to encourage regular revisiting of the content (addition and subtraction) and strategies (working backwards/trial and improvement); Have children create their own versions and send them to us to challenge our followers - Twitter: @UKExceED
Tricky Totals: Problem Solving ‘Start the Day’ (Free)
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Tricky Totals: Problem Solving ‘Start the Day’ (Free)

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Do your children need practice solving problems and puzzles? Do you need activities that specifically practise reasoning with addition and subtraction? Then look no further than this ‘Start the Day’ activity pack. In this pack there is one free sample activity from our full pack - Tricky Totals: Problem Solving ‘Start the Day’, which has 5 similar activities (each with teacher answers) in PDF form for easy printing and sharing with your children on an interactive whiteboard. The activity is designed to encourage children to work systematically to find the correct totals. The 3 x 3 grid uses the digits 1-9 only once. Three different sections are colour-coded to represent a sum total of that colour, and the smaller sum totals represent the 4 touching squares around it. Children are forced to reason throughout, for example that if two blue squares total 8, the paired numbers must be either 1 + 7, 2 + 6, 3 + 5 but not 4 + 4 because the digit 4 cannot be used twice. Tips on how to deliver these activities: On the first occasion you use these activities, allow children a free run at solving the puzzle, perhaps with some very minor discussion around the sum totals and how they might help; Allow children to use the digit cards 1-9 to physically manipulate their puzzle; Allow children to talk through their strategies for finding solutions, encouraging pupil voice in both paired and whole-class discussions; If necessary (some children won’t find a way to solve the problem without a system), share a way to work backwards. For example, what piece of information helps us the most. Can we start from there? Why can’t a 5 go here? Etc; Encourage children to think about what they did to make the problem smaller; Ask children how they could adapt the puzzle to make it easier, or more challenging (for example through fewer clues, or being able to use digits more than once); Use one activity per week over a half term to encourage regular revisiting of the content (addition and subtraction) and strategies (working backwards/trial and improvement); Have children create their own versions and send them to us to challenge our followers - Twitter: @UKExceED
Sum Steps: 'Start the Day' reasoning addition problems
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Sum Steps: 'Start the Day' reasoning addition problems

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Do your children need practice solving problems and puzzles? Do you need activities that specifically practise reasoning with addition and subtraction? Then look no further than this ‘Start the Day’ activity pack. This is the full pack which has 5 similar activities (each with teacher answers) in PDF and PowerPoint form for easy printing and sharing with your children on an interactive whiteboard. The activity is designed to encourage children to work systematically to find the correct totals of each step in the pyramid. Children will be able to find some spaces as a direct result of some of the known numbers, with only one number in the bottom row remaining unknown. Children might choose to use a trial and improvement method for finding this unknown number, reasoning out their others answers based on their choices. Otherwise, children might use algebra to replace this unknown number with x. The answer pages provide both the full answer, and the stages involved in using algebra to enable teacher follow up during plenary or mini-plenary discussions. Tips on how to deliver these activities: On the first occasion you use these activities, allow children a free run at solving the puzzle, perhaps with some very minor discussion around the known numbers and how they might help; Allow children to talk through their strategies for finding solutions, encouraging pupil voice in both paired and whole-class discussions; If necessary (some children won’t find a way to solve the problem without a system), share a way to work backwards. For example, what piece of information helps us the most. Can we start from there? Why can’t a 5 go here? Etc; Encourage children to think about what they did to make the problem smaller; Ask children how they could adapt the puzzle to make it easier, or more challenging (for example through fewer clues, or fewer pyramid steps); Use one activity per week over a half term to encourage regular revisiting of the content (addition and subtraction) and strategies (working backwards/trial and improvement/algebra); Have children create their own versions and send them to us to challenge our followers - Twitter: @UKExceED