# Teacher Conor's Resources

Hi, here you can find the resources that I use in my online video series (find it here: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCW4RKg9G1GKSiOMq6xN5FNQ)

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Hi, here you can find the resources that I use in my online video series (find it here: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCW4RKg9G1GKSiOMq6xN5FNQ)

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Hi, here you can find the resources that I use in my online video series (find it here: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCW4RKg9G1GKSiOMq6xN5FNQ)

In this lesson we discuss the relative strength of intermolecular forces and how different types of chemical bonding will affect a species physical properties. This is lesson eleven in our physical chemistry series for Unit 3: Chemical Bonding (from the Cambridge International AS Chemistry Curriculum (9701) 2019-2021 curriculum).
Included are the lesson slides and student led tasks found in this lesson video:
https://youtu.be/wEyojNkkOyQ
LESSON OBJECTIVE: Identify and rationalise the types of intermolecular forces a molecule will have and consequently describe and predict the physical properties of different species based on the type of bonding present.
Learning Outcomes (from the Cambridge AS Chemistry Curriculum 2019-2021):
3.5 Bonding and physical properties
a) describe, interpret and predict the effect of different types of bonding (ionic bonding, covalent bonding, hydrogen bonding, other intermolecular interactions, metallic bonding) on the physical properties of substances
b) deduce the type of bonding present from given information
c) show understanding of chemical reactions in terms of energy transfers associated with the breaking and making of chemical bonds

In this lesson we discuss calculations with equilibrium constants using the ‘RICE table’ method and how equilibria can effect industrial chemical production, specifically in the Haber process and the Contact process. This is lesson twenty two in our physical chemistry series for Unit 7: Equilibria (from the Cambridge International AS Chemistry Curriculum (9701) 2019-2021 curriculum).
Included are the lesson slides and student led tasks found in this lesson video:
https://youtu.be/c8vIQiCz0vs
LESSON OBJECTIVE: Apply the concepts of equilibria and equilibrium constants to laboratory procedures, including industrially with the Haber and Contact processes.
LEARNING OUTCOMES (taken from the Cambridge International AS and A Level Chemistry (9701) 2019-2021 curriculum):
7.1 Chemical equilibria: reversible reactions, dynamic equilibrium
f) calculate the quantities present at equilibrium, given appropriate data (such calculations will not require the solving of quadratic equations)
g) describe and explain the conditions used in the Haber process and the Contact process, as examples of the importance of an understanding of chemical equilibrium in the chemical industry

In this lesson we focus on the electron and how it arranges itself around the nucleus in principal quantum levels, subshells and atomic orbitals. This is lesson five in our physical chemistry series for Unit 2: Atomic Structure (from the Cambridge International AS Chemistry Curriculum (9701) 2019-2021 curriculum).
Included are the lesson slides and student led tasks found in this lesson video:
https://youtu.be/5WDNgSCwhJQ
LESSON OBJECTIVE: Understand how the electron exists in principal quantum levels and subshells, to describe the relative energies of the s, p and d orbitals and to sketch the s and p orbitals.
LEARNING OUTCOMES (from the Cambridge AS Chemistry Curriculum 2019-2021):
2.3 Electrons: energy levels, atomic orbitals, ionisation energy, electron affinity
a) describe the number and relative energies of the s, p and d orbitals for the principal quantum numbers 1, 2 and 3 and also the 4s and 4p orbitals
b) describe and sketch the shapes of s and p orbitals

In this lesson we give an overview of the three types of chemical bonding (ionic, covalent and metallic) and an introduction into how VSEPR theory dictates molecular geometries. This is lesson eight in our physical chemistry series for Unit 3: Chemical Bonding (from the Cambridge International AS Chemistry Curriculum (9701) 2019-2021 curriculum).
Included are the lesson slides and student led tasks found in this lesson video:
https://youtu.be/vVPgIW91tAc
LESSON OBJECTIVE: Understand how ionic, covalent and metallic bonds form. Rationalise molecular geometries using VSEPR theory.
Learning Outcomes (from the Cambridge AS Chemistry Curriculum 2019-2021):
3.1 Ionic bonding
a) describe ionic bonding, using the examples of sodium chloride, magnesium oxide and calcium fluoride, including the use of ‘dot-and- cross’ diagrams
3.2 Covalent bonding and co-ordinate (dative covalent) bonding including shapes of simple molecules
a) describe, including the use of ‘dot-and-cross’ diagrams:
(i) covalent bonding, in molecules such as hydrogen, oxygen, chlorine, hydrogen chloride, carbon dioxide, methane, ethene
(ii) co-ordinate (dative covalent) bonding, such as in the formation of the ammonium ion and in the Al2Cl6 molecule
c) explain the shapes of, and bond angles in, molecules by using the qualitative model of electron-pair repulsion (including lone pairs), using as simple examples BF3 (trigonal planar), CO2 (linear), CH4 (tetrahedral), NH3 (pyramidal), H2O (non-linear), SF6 (octahedral), PF5 (trigonal bipyramidal)
3.4 Metallic bonding
a) describe metallic bonding in terms of positive ions surrounded by delocalised electrons

This lesson goes over the concepts of relative mass, the mole and Avogadro’s constant. This is lesson one in our physical chemistry series from unit 1: Atoms, Molecules and Stoichiometry (from the Cambridge International AS Chemistry Curriculum).
Included are the lesson slides and student led tasks found in this lesson video: https://youtu.be/cpABhs-q5Qg
LESSON OBJECTIVE: To understand and calculate masses of atoms and molecules based on the 12C scale, to investigate the concept of the mole and to be able to analyse mass spectra.
LEARNING OUTCOMES (taken from the Cambridge International AS and A Level Chemistry (9701) 2019-2021 curriculum):
1.1 Relative masses of atoms and molecules
a) define and use the terms relative atomic, isotopic, molecular and formula masses, based on the 12C scale
1.2 The mole and the Avogadro constant
a) Define and use the term mole in terms of the Avogadro constant
1.3 The determination of relative atomic masses, Ar
a) Analyse mass spectra in terms of isotopic abundances
b) Calculate the relative atomic mass of an element given the relative abundances of its isotopes, or its mass spectrum.

In this lesson we go over the subatomic particles in the atom and the concept of the nucleus. This is lesson four in our physical chemistry series for Unit 2: Atomic Structure (from the Cambridge International AS Chemistry Curriculum (9701) 2019-2021 curriculum).
Included are the lesson slides and student led tasks found in this lesson video:
https://youtu.be/dE3Cbcfz5-Q
LESSON OBJECTIVE: Understand the properties of subatomic particles of an element including naming, mass and charge conventions for elements and isotopes.
LEARNING OUTCOMES (from the Cambridge AS Chemistry Curriculum 2019-2021):
2.1 Particles in the atom
a) identify and describe protons, neutrons and electrons in terms of their relative charges and relative masses
b) deduce the behaviour of beams of protons, neutrons and electrons in electric fields
c) describe the distribution of mass and charge within an atom
d) deduce the numbers of protons, neutrons and electrons present in both atoms and ions given proton and nucleon numbers (atomic and mass numbers) and charge
2.2 The nucleus of the atom
a) describe the contribution of protons and neutrons to atomic nuclei in terms of proton (atomic) number and nucleon (mass) number
b) distinguish between isotopes on the basis of different numbers of neutrons present
c) recognise and use the symbolism xyA for isotopes, where x is the nucleon (mass) number and y is the proton (atomic) number

This lesson goes over the concept of stoichiometry and how to do stoichiometric calculations that involve the reactions of masses and volumes. This is lesson three in our physical chemistry series for Unit 1: Atoms, Molecules and Stoichiometry (from the Cambridge International AS Chemistry Curriculum (9701) 2019-2021 curriculum).
Included are the lesson slides and student led tasks found in this lesson video:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zTdfH2x-8-c
LESSON OBJECTIVE: To balance equations and perform calculations using the mole concept and stoichiometric relationships. Understand the concept of a titration.
LEARNING OUTCOMES (from the Cambridge AS Chemistry Curriculum 2019-2021):
1.5 Reacting masses and volumes (of solutions and gases)
a) write and construct balanced equations
b) perform calculations, including use of the mole concept, involving:
i) reacting masses (from formulae and equations)
ii) volumes of gases (e.g. in the burning of hydrocarbons)
III) volumes and concentrations of solutions
c) deduce stoichiometric relationships from calculations

This lesson goes over the concepts of empirical and molecular formulas and how to correctly use significant figures. This is lesson two in our physical chemistry series from unit 1: Atoms, Molecules and Stoichiometry (from the Cambridge International AS Chemistry Curriculum).
Included are the lesson slides and student led tasks found in this lesson video:
https://youtu.be/UAeBtbekYQE
LESSON OBJECTIVE: Understand and calculate empirical and molecular formulas. Understand how to report calculations to the correct amount of significant figures.
LEARNING OUTCOMES (taken from the Cambridge International AS and A Level Chemistry (9701) 2019-2021 curriculum):
1.4 The calculation of empirical and molecular formulae
a) define and use the terms empirical and molecular formula
b) calculate empirical and molecular formulae, using combustion data or composition by mass

In this lesson we focus on the rules stating how electrons fill orbitals and how to write electron subshell configuration. This is lesson six in our physical chemistry series for Unit 2: Atomic Structure (from the Cambridge International AS Chemistry Curriculum (9701) 2019-2021 curriculum).
Included are the lesson slides and student led tasks found in this lesson video:
https://youtu.be/KbchcExPzPQ
LESSON OBJECTIVE: Understand how electrons fill orbitals and to determine subshell electronic configuration for given atoms and ions.
LEARNING OUTCOMES (from the Cambridge AS Chemistry Curriculum 2019-2021):
2.3 Electrons: energy levels, atomic orbitals, ionisation energy, electron affinity
c) state the electronic configuration of atoms and ions given the proton (atomic) number and charge, using the convention 1s22s22p6, etc.

In this lesson we discuss how intermolecular forces arise due to the concept of electronegativity and bond polarity and other bond properties. This is lesson ten in our physical chemistry series for Unit 3: Chemical Bonding (from the Cambridge International AS Chemistry Curriculum (9701) 2019-2021 curriculum).
Included are the lesson slides and student led tasks found in this lesson video:
https://youtu.be/CsH7LDX77fo
LESSON OBJECTIVE: Understand the different intermolecular forces and their implications for a molecules physical properties. Explain these forces in terms of electronegativity and polarity.
Learning Outcomes (from the Cambridge AS Chemistry Curriculum 2019-2021):
3.3 Intermolecular forces, electronegativity and bond properties.
a) describe hydrogen bonding, using ammonia and water as simple examples of molecules containing N-H and O-H groups
b) understand, in simple terms, the concept of electronegativity and apply it to explain the properties of molecules such as bond polarity, the dipole moments of molecules and the behaviour of oxides with water
c) explain in terms of bond energy, bond length and bond polarity and use them to compare the reactivities of covalent bonds
d) describe intermolecular forces (van der Waals’ forces) based on permanent and induced dipoles, as in, for example, CHCl3(l); Br2(l) and the liquid Group 18 element.

In this lesson we discuss equilibrium constants and how to determine them using concentrations and partial pressures, and discuss how certain factors can change the value of an equilibrium constant. This is lesson twenty one in our physical chemistry series for Unit 7: Equilibria (from the Cambridge International AS Chemistry Curriculum (9701) 2019-2021 curriculum).
Included are the lesson slides and student led tasks found in this lesson video:
https://youtu.be/lNBnCDNfJ5w
LESSON OBJECTIVE: Understand and calculate equilibrium constants (Kc and Kp), determine their units and interpret how certain factors can affect its value.
LEARNING OUTCOMES (taken from the Cambridge International AS and A Level Chemistry (9701) 2019-2021 curriculum):
c) state whether changes in temperature, concentration or pressure or the presence
of a catalyst affect the value of the equilibrium constant for a reaction.
d) deduce expressions for equilibrium constants in terms of concentrations, Kc , and partial pressures, Kp (treatment of the relationship between Kp and Kc is not required)
e) calculate the values of equilibrium constants in terms of concentrations or partial pressures from appropriate data

In this lesson we discuss how to calculate enthalpy changes using the equation ΔH=–mcΔT, specific heat capacity and the concept of calorimetry as an experimental technique. This is lesson sixteen in our physical chemistry series for Unit 5: Chemical Energetics (from the Cambridge International AS Chemistry Curriculum (9701) 2019-2021 curriculum).
Included are the lesson slides and student led tasks found in this lesson video:
https://youtu.be/3rqVWcTXG_k
LESSON OBJECTIVE: Understand how to calculate the enthalpy change of a reaction from experimental data obtained via calorimetry.
LEARNING OUTCOMES (from the Cambridge International AS and A Level Chemistry (9701) 2019-2021 curriculum):
5.1 Enthalpy change, ΔH
c) calculate enthalpy changes from appropriate experimental results, including the use of the relationship ΔH = –mcΔT

In this lesson we discuss the particle model of states of matter, kinetic theory, the ideal gas law and the general gas equation. This is lesson twelve in our physical chemistry series for Unit 4: States of Matter (from the Cambridge International AS Chemistry Curriculum (9701) 2019-2021 curriculum).
Included are the lesson slides and student led tasks found in this lesson video:
https://youtu.be/Z8SwQCzpLhA
LESSON OBJECTIVE: Understand how to calculate and manipulate the ideal gas law equation and explain its limitations.
Learning Outcomes (from the Cambridge AS Chemistry Curriculum 2019-2021):
4.1 The gaseous state: ideal and real gases and pV=nRT
a) state the basic assumptions of the kinetic theory as applied to an ideal gas
b) explain qualitatively in terms of intermolecular forces and molecular size:
i) the conditions necessary for a gas to approach ideal behaviour
ii) the limitations of ideality at very high pressures and very low temperatures
c) state and use the general gas equation pV = nRT in calculations, including the determination of Mr

In this lesson we discuss enthalpy changes, exothermic and endothermic reactions and enthalpy profile diagrams. This is lesson fifteen in our physical chemistry series for Unit 5: Chemical Energetics (from the Cambridge International AS Chemistry Curriculum (9701) 2019-2021 curriculum).
Included are the lesson slides and student led tasks found in this lesson video:
https://youtu.be/vwg0VQHgjPs
LESSON OBJECTIVE: Understand the properties of exothermic and endothermic reactions and to describe the enthalpy change of various reactions under standard conditions.
LEARNING OUTCOMES (from the Cambridge International AS and A Level Chemistry (9701) 2019-2021 curriculum)
5.1 Enthalpy change, ΔH
a) explain that chemical reactions are accompanied by energy changes, principally in the form of heat energy; the energy changes can be exothermic (ΔH is negative) or endothermic (ΔH is positive)
b) explain and use the terms:
i) enthalpy change of reaction and standard conditions, with particular reference to: formation, combustion, hydration, solution, neutralisation, atomisation
ii) bond energy (ΔH positive, i.e. bond breaking)

In this lesson we discuss the concept of redox processes from reduction and oxidation reactions, half equations, ionic equations and how to determine oxidation states (oxidation numbers). This is lesson eighteen in our physical chemistry series for Unit 6: Electrochemistry (from the Cambridge International AS Chemistry Curriculum (9701) 2019-2021 curriculum).
Included are the lesson slides and student led tasks found in this lesson video:
https://youtu.be/-usSO03fAOU
LESSON OBJECTIVE: Understand and explain redox reactions in terms of electron transfer and oxidation numbers.
LEARNING OUTCOMES (taken from the Cambridge International AS and A Level Chemistry (9701) 2019-2021 curriculum):
6.1 Redox processes: electron transfer and changes in oxidation number (oxidation state)
a) calculate oxidation numbers of elements in compounds and ions
b) describe and explain redox processes in terms of electron transfer and changes in oxidation number

In this lesson we discuss the concept of Hess’ Law based on the first law of thermodynamics and how this can be used to create enthalpy cycles to determine unknown enthalpy changes. This is lesson seventeen in our physical chemistry series for Unit 5: Chemical Energetics (from the Cambridge International AS Chemistry Curriculum (9701) 2019-2021 curriculum).
Included are the lesson slides and student led tasks found in this lesson video:
https://youtu.be/2cIpCGNyYic
LESSON OBJECTIVE: Understand and apply Hess’ law through enthalpy cycles. Calculate enthalpy changes through bond energies and vice versa.
LEARNING OUTCOMES (taken from the Cambridge International AS and A Level Chemistry (9701) 2019-2021 curriculum):
5.2 Hess’ Law, including Born-Haber cycles
a) apply Hess’ Law to construct simple energy cycles, and carry out calculations involving such cycles and relevant energy terms, with particular reference to:
i) determining enthalpy changes that cannot be found by direct experiment, e.g. an enthalpy change of formation from enthalpy changes of combustion
ii) average bond energies
b) construct and interpret a reaction pathway diagram, in terms of the enthalpy change of the reaction and of the activation energy

In this lesson we discuss the concept of reversible reactions, dynamic equilibrium, Le Chatelier’s principle and how Le Chatelier’s principle is linked to temperature, concentration and pressure. This is lesson twenty in our physical chemistry series for Unit 7: Equilibria (from the Cambridge International AS Chemistry Curriculum (9701) 2019-2021 curriculum).
Included are the lesson slides and student led tasks found in this lesson video:
https://youtu.be/L4h8ANWVDaQ
LESSON OBJECTIVE: Understand the concepts of a reversible reaction and dynamic equilibrium and how they apply to Le Chatelier’s principle in different contexts.
LEARNING OUTCOMES (taken from the Cambridge International AS and A Level Chemistry (9701) 2019-2021 curriculum):
7.1 Chemical equilibria: reversible reactions, dynamic equilibrium
a) explain, in terms of rates of the forward and reverse reactions, what is meant by a reversible reaction and dynamic equilibrium
b) state Le Chatelier’s principle and apply it to deduce qualitatively (from appropriate information) the effects of changes in temperature, concentration or pressure on a system at equilibrium
c) state whether changes in temperature, concentration or pressure or the presence of a catalyst affect the value of the equilibrium constant for a reaction.

In this lesson we discuss the concept of using oxidation states to determine whether a species has been reduced or oxidised, introduce the idea of oxidising and reducing agents, how to use oxidation for naming conventions and how to use oxidation numbers to balance redox reactions. This is lesson nineteen in our physical chemistry series for Unit 6: Electrochemistry (from the Cambridge International AS Chemistry Curriculum (9701) 2019-2021 curriculum).
Included are the lesson slides and student led tasks found in this lesson video:
https://youtu.be/8HqZRIaiPHM
LESSON OBJECTIVE: Use oxidation numbers to determine oxidising and reducing agents, understand naming conventions and to balance chemical equations.
LEARNING OUTCOMES (taken from the Cambridge International AS and A Level Chemistry (9701) 2019-2021 curriculum):
6.1 Redox processes: electron transfer and changes in oxidation number (oxidation state)
c) use changes in oxidation numbers to help balance chemical equations

In this lesson we discuss the liquid state, phase changes and the concept of vapour pressure. This is lesson thirteen in our physical chemistry series for Unit 4: States of Matter (from the Cambridge International AS Chemistry Curriculum (9701) 2019-2021 curriculum).
Included are the lesson slides and student led tasks found in this lesson video:
https://youtu.be/u6bgwFew1Ko
LESSON OBJECTIVE: Understand the liquid state using the kinetic model and describe how particles behave during phase changes and at vapour pressure.
Learning Outcomes (from the Cambridge AS Chemistry Curriculum 2019-2021):
4.2 The liquid state
a) describe, using a kinetic-molecular model, the liquid state, melting, vaporisation and vapour pressure.

In this lesson we describe the relationship between temperature and reaction rates and introduce the concept of the Boltzmann distribution. This is lesson twenty five in our physical chemistry series for Unit 8: Reaction kinetics (from the Cambridge International AS Chemistry Curriculum (9701) 2019-2021 curriculum).
Included are the lesson slides and student led tasks found in this lesson video:
https://youtu.be/oqPGXCMle4E
LESSON OBJECTIVE: Describe the effect of temperature on reaction rates and illustrate this on a Boltzmann distribution.
LEARNING OUTCOMES (taken from the Cambridge International AS and A Level Chemistry (9701) 2019-2021 curriculum):
8.2 Effect of temperature: on reaction rates and rate constants and the concept of activation energy
a) explain and use the term activation energy, including reference to the Boltzmann distribution
b) explain qualitatively, in terms both of the Boltzmann distribution and of collision frequency, the effect of temperature change on the rate of a reaction