# Teacher Conor's Resources

Hi, here you can find the resources that I use in my online video series (find it here: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCW4RKg9G1GKSiOMq6xN5FNQ)

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Hi, here you can find the resources that I use in my online video series (find it here: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCW4RKg9G1GKSiOMq6xN5FNQ)

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Hi, here you can find the resources that I use in my online video series (find it here: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCW4RKg9G1GKSiOMq6xN5FNQ)

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Six lessons consisting of a unit on chemical energetics, addressing CIE learning outcomes. Each lesson consists of lesson slides and student led tasks.
Consists of the following lessons:
1) Lattice Energy and Born-Haber Cycles
2) Enthalpies of Solution and Hydration
3) An Introduction to Entropy
4) Entropy Changes
5) Calculating Changes in Entropy
6) Gibbs Free Energy

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Seven lessons consisting of a unit on electrochemistry, addressing CIE learning outcomes. Each lesson consists of lesson slides and student led tasks.
Consists of the following lessons:
An Overview of Electrolysis
Quantitative Electrolysis
An Introduction to Electrode Potentials
Measuring Standard Electrode Potentials
Calculating Standard Cell Potentials
The Nernst Equation, Concentration and Cell Potential
Spontaneity, Gibbs Free Energy and Cell Potential

LESSON OBJECTIVE: Understand the concept of Gibbs free energy, ΔG, and use the equation ΔG = ΔH – TΔS to determine the feasibility of a reaction.
Learning Outcomes:
(taken from the Cambridge International AS and A Level Chemistry curriculum)
23.4 Gibbs free energy change, ΔS
1 state and use the Gibbs equation ΔG⦵ = ΔH⦵ – TΔS⦵
2 perform calculations using the equation ΔG⦵ = ΔH⦵ – TΔS⦵
3 state whether a reaction or process will be feasible by using the sign of ΔG
4 predict the effect of temperature change on the feasibility of a reaction, given standard enthalpy and entropy changes

LESSON OBJECTIVE: Understand enthalpy changes that occur in ionic salts in solution.
Learning Outcomes:
(taken from the Cambridge International AS and A Level Chemistry curriculum)
23.2 Enthalpies of solution and hydration
1 define and use the term enthalpy change with reference to hydration, ΔHhyd, and solution, ΔHsol
2 construct and use an energy cycle involving enthalpy change of solution, lattice energy and enthalpy change of hydration
3 carry out calculations involving the energy cycles in 23.2.2
4 explain, in qualitative terms, the effect of ionic charge and of ionic radius on the numerical magnitude of an enthalpy change of hydration

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Four lessons consisting of a unit on equilibria, adressing CIE learning outcomes. Each lesson consists of lesson slides and student led tasks.
Consists of the following lessons:
pH and the Acid Dissociation Constant
Indicators and Acid-Base Titrations
Buffer Solutions
Solubility Products, the Common Ion Effect and Partition Coefficients

LESSON OBJECTIVE: Investigate electrolysis and predict products from the electrolysis of both molten and aqueous compounds
Learning Outcomes:
(taken from the Cambridge International AS and A Level Chemistry curriculum)
24.1 Electrolysis
1 predict the identities of substances liberated during electrolysis from the state of electrolyte (molten or aqueous), position in the redox series (electrode potential) and concentration

LESSON OBJECTIVE: Understand the use of electrolysis quantitatively using changes in electrode mass.
Learning Outcomes:
(taken from the Cambridge International AS and A Level Chemistry curriculum)
24.1 Electrolysis
2 state and apply the relationship F = Le between the Faraday constant, F, the Avogadro constant, L, and the charge on the electron, e
3 calculate:
the quantity of charge passed during electrolysis, using Q = It
the mass and/or volume of substance liberated during electrolysis
4 describe the determination of a value of the Avogadro constant by an electrolytic method

LESSON OBJECTIVE: Understand how to measure the standard electrode potentials of a half-cell relative to the standard hydrogen electrode.
Learning Outcomes:
(taken from the Cambridge International AS and A Level Chemistry curriculum)
24.2 Standard electrode potentials E⦵; standard cell potentials E⦵cell and the Nernst equation
2 describe the standard hydrogen electrode
3 describe methods used to measure the standard electrode potentials of:
(a) metals or non-metals in contact with their ions in aqueous solution
(b) ions of the same element in different oxidation states

LESSON OBJECTIVE: Understand pH changes in acid-base titrations and how to select an appropriate indicator for certain reactions.
Learning Outcomes:
(taken from the Cambridge International AS and A Level Chemistry curriculum)
7.2 Brønsted-Lowry theory of acids and bases
9 sketch the pH titration curves of titrations using combinations of strong and weak acids with strong and weak alkalis
10 select suitable indicators for acid-alkali titrations, given appropriate data (pKa values will not be used)
25.1 Acids and bases
4 calculate [H+(aq)] and pH values for:
a) strong acids
b) strong alkalis
c) weak acids

LESSON OBJECTIVE: Investigate reaction spontaneity by linking the concepts ΔG⦵ and E⦵cell
Learning Outcomes:
(taken from the Cambridge International AS and A Level Chemistry curriculum)
24.2 Standard electrode potentials E⦵; standard cell potentials E⦵cell and the Nernst equation
10 understand and use the equation ΔG⦵ = –nE⦵cellF

LESSON OBJECTIVE: Calculate standard cell potentials (E⦵cell) and use E⦵ values to determine the feasibility of a reaction
Learning Outcomes:
(taken from the Cambridge International AS and A Level Chemistry curriculum)
24.2 Standard electrode potentials E⦵; standard cell potentials E⦵cell and the Nernst equation
4 calculate a standard cell potential by combining two standard electrode potentials
5 use standard cell potentials to:
(a) deduce the polarity of each electrode and hence explain/deduce the direction of electron flow in the external circuit of a simple cell
(b) predict the feasibility of a reaction

LESSON OBJECTIVE: Investigate the relationship between concentration and cell potential both qualitatively and, using the Nernst equation, quantitatively
Learning Outcomes:
(taken from the Cambridge International AS and A Level Chemistry curriculum)
24.2 Standard electrode potentials E⦵; standard cell potentials E⦵cell and the Nernst equation
6 deduce from E values the relative reactivity of elements, compounds and ions as oxidising agents or as
reducing agents
7 construct redox equations using the relevant half-equations
8 predict qualitatively how the value of an electrode potential, E, varies with the concentration of the aqueous ions
9 use the Nernst equation, e.g. E = E⦵ + (0.059/z) log [oxidised species]/[reduced species] to predict quantitatively how the value of an electrode potential varies with the concentrations of the aqueous ions; examples include Cu2+(aq) + 2e- ⇌ Cu(s), Fe3+(aq) + e- ⇌ Fe2+(aq)

LESSON OBJECTIVE: Investigate pH, Kw, Ka, pKa and how to utilise them in calculations.
Learning Outcomes:
(taken from the Cambridge International AS and A Level Chemistry curriculum)
25.1 Acids and bases
1 understand and use the terms conjugate acid and conjugate base
2 define conjugate acid-base pairs, identifying such pairs in reactions
3 define mathematically the terms pH, Ka pKa and Kw and use them in calculations (Kb and the equation Kw = Ka × Kb will not be tested)

LESSON OBJECTIVE: Understand entropy as a measure of the disorder of a system.
Learning Outcomes:
(taken from the Cambridge International AS and A Level Chemistry curriculum)
23.3 Entropy change, ΔS
define the term entropy, S, as the number of possible arrangements of the particles and their energy in a given system

LESSON OBJECTIVE: Calculate the entropy change for a reaction and interpret the value to determine if a process will be spontaneous or not.
Learning Outcomes:
(taken from the Cambridge International AS and A Level Chemistry curriculum)
23.3 Entropy change, ΔS
3. calculate the entropy change for a reaction, ΔS, given the standard entropies, S⦵, of the reactants and products, ΔS⦵ = ΣS⦵ (products) – ΣS⦵ (reactants)
(use of ΔS⦵ = ΔSsurr⦵ + ΔSsys⦵ is not required)

LESSON OBJECTIVE: Investigate entropy changes and predict entropy changes that will occur during state changes and chemical reactions.
Learning Outcomes:
(taken from the Cambridge International AS and A Level Chemistry curriculum)
23.3 Entropy change, ΔS
2. predict and explain the sign of the entropy changes that occur:
a) during a change in state, e.g. melting, boiling and dissolving (and their reverse)
b) during a temperature change
c) during a reaction in which there is a change in the number of gaseous molecules

LESSON OBJECTIVE: Understand the concept of electron affinity and use Born-Haber cycles to calculate lattice energies
Learning Outcomes:
(taken from the Cambridge International AS and A Level Chemistry curriculum)
23.1 Lattice energy and Born-Haber cycles
define and use the terms:
a) enthalpy change of atomisation, ΔHat
b) lattice energy, ΔHlatt (the change from gas phase ions to solid lattice)
a) define and use the term first electron affinity, EA
b) explain the factors affecting the electron affinities of elements
c) describe and explain the trends in the electron affinities of the Group 16 and Group 17 elements
construct and use Born–Haber cycles for ionic solids (limited to +1 and +2 cations, –1 and –2 anions)
carry out calculations involving Born–Haber cycles
explain, in qualitative terms, the effect of ionic charge and of ionic radius on the numerical magnitude of a lattice energy

This lesson goes over the concept of stoichiometry and how to do stoichiometric calculations that involve the reactions of masses and volumes. This is lesson three in our physical chemistry series for Unit 1: Atoms, Molecules and Stoichiometry (from the Cambridge International AS Chemistry Curriculum (9701) 2019-2021 curriculum).
LESSON OBJECTIVE: To balance equations and perform calculations using the mole concept and stoichiometric relationships. Understand the concept of a titration.
LEARNING OUTCOMES (from the Cambridge AS Chemistry Curriculum 2019-2021):
1.5 Reacting masses and volumes (of solutions and gases)
a) write and construct balanced equations
b) perform calculations, including use of the mole concept, involving:
i) reacting masses (from formulae and equations)
ii) volumes of gases (e.g. in the burning of hydrocarbons)
III) volumes and concentrations of solutions
c) deduce stoichiometric relationships from calculations

This lesson goes over the concepts of relative mass, the mole and Avogadro’s constant. This is lesson one in our physical chemistry series from unit 1: Atoms, Molecules and Stoichiometry (from the Cambridge International AS Chemistry Curriculum).
LESSON OBJECTIVE: To understand and calculate masses of atoms and molecules based on the 12C scale, to investigate the concept of the mole and to be able to analyse mass spectra.
LEARNING OUTCOMES (taken from the Cambridge International AS and A Level Chemistry (9701) 2019-2021 curriculum):
1.1 Relative masses of atoms and molecules
a) define and use the terms relative atomic, isotopic, molecular and formula masses, based on the 12C scale
1.2 The mole and the Avogadro constant
a) Define and use the term mole in terms of the Avogadro constant
1.3 The determination of relative atomic masses, Ar
a) Analyse mass spectra in terms of isotopic abundances
b) Calculate the relative atomic mass of an element given the relative abundances of its isotopes, or its mass spectrum.

This lesson goes over the concepts of empirical and molecular formulas and how to correctly use significant figures. This is lesson two in our physical chemistry series from unit 1: Atoms, Molecules and Stoichiometry (from the Cambridge International AS Chemistry Curriculum).
LESSON OBJECTIVE: Understand and calculate empirical and molecular formulas. Understand how to report calculations to the correct amount of significant figures.
LEARNING OUTCOMES (taken from the Cambridge International AS and A Level Chemistry (9701) 2019-2021 curriculum):
1.4 The calculation of empirical and molecular formulae
a) define and use the terms empirical and molecular formula
b) calculate empirical and molecular formulae, using combustion data or composition by mass