Grangemouth is Scotland's only crude oil refinery. The refinery plays an important part in the Scottish ecomony, fueling the nation's transport needs. The global oil industry began in Scotland in the 1850s. James Young developed a process for extracting oil from shale. When crude oil was discovered in Pennsylvania in 1859, Scotland's shale industry went into decline. The surviving Scottish oil companies combined to set up the refinery in Grangemouth. When North Sea oil and gas were discovered in the 1960s and 70s, the plant expanded and its future was cemented.